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Protein Dynamics by Solid-State NMR with Ultra-Fast Magic-Angle Spinning : from Microcrystals to Amyloid Fibrils and Membrane Proteins

Abstract : Solid-state NMR with magic angle spinning (MAS) has emerged as a powerful technique for investigating structure and dynamics of insoluble or poorly soluble biomolecules. A number of approaches has been designed for reconstructing molecular structures from the accurate measurement of internuclear proximities, and for probing motions at atomic resolution over timescales spanning several orders of magnitude. Despite this impressive progress, however, MAS NMR studies are still far from routine. Complete determinations, which are often demonstrated on model microcrystalline preparations, are still rare when it comes to more complex systems such as non-crystalline amyloid fibrils or transmembrane proteins in lipid bilayers. My work aimed at extending the possibilities of MAS NMR for applications on complex biomolecular systems in different aggregation states. For this, I exploited the unique possibilities provided by high magnetic fields (700, 800 and 1000 MHz 1H Larmor frequency) in combination with the newest MAS probes capable of spinning rates exceeding 60 kHz. These experimental conditions al- low to boost the sensitivity of MAS NMR through 1H detection at high resolution and to enrich the palette of probes for protein dynamics. The first part of the thesis reports on my contribution to the development of new strategies for backbone resonance assignment, for structure elucidation, and for investigation of backbone and side-chain dynamics. These methodologies significantly reduce the requirements in terms of experimental time, sample quantities and isotopic labeling, and enlarge the molecular size of systems amenable to NMR analysis. The second part describes the application of 1H detected MAS NMR to evaluate the role of protein dynamics in problems such as amyloid fibril formation and membrane protein function. I first addressed the amyloid fibril formation propensity of human beta-2 microglobulin, the light chain of the major histocompatibility complex I. I performed comparative studies of backbone dynamics of the wild type protein as well as a D76N mutant in crystals, and determined some of the structural features of the fibrillar form. This allowed to identify the presence of pathological folding intermediates and to formulate hypotheses on the mechanism of fibrils formation. Finally, I studied the local and global dynamics of membrane proteins in lipid bilayers. In particular, I investigated the mechanism of action of the alkane trans- porter AlkL from P. putida in lipid bilayers. The measurement of parameters for fast (ps-ns) and slow (μs-ms) backbone dynamics of the protein in presence or in absence of a substrate highlights possible routes for molecular uptake and lays the basis for a more detailed mechanistic understanding of the process.
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Submitted on : Monday, October 22, 2018 - 3:52:13 PM
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Tanguy Le Marchand. Protein Dynamics by Solid-State NMR with Ultra-Fast Magic-Angle Spinning : from Microcrystals to Amyloid Fibrils and Membrane Proteins. Analytical chemistry. Université de Lyon, 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018LYSEN023⟩. ⟨tel-01901009⟩



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