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Images and fibers of rational applications and burst algebra

Abstract : Rational maps are fundamental objects in algebraic geometry. They are used to describe some geometric objects,such as parametric representation of rational algebraic varieties. Lately, rational maps appeared in computer-engineering contexts, mostly applied to shape modeling using computer-aided design methods for curves and surfaces. Parameterized algebraic curves and surfaces are used intensively to describe objects in geometric modeling, such as car bodies, airplanes.Therefore, the study of rational maps is of theoretical interest in algebraic geometry and commutative algebra, and of practical importance in geometric modeling. My thesis studies images and fibers of rational maps in relation with the equations of the symmetric and Rees algebras. In geometric modeling, it is of vital importance to have a detailed knowledge of the geometry of the object and of the parametric representation with which one is working. The question of how many times is the same point being painted (i.e., corresponds to distinct values of parameter), depends not only on the variety itself, but also on the parameterization. It is of interest for applications to determine the singularities of the parameterizations. In the chapters 2 and 3, we study the fibers of a rational map from P^m to P^n that is generically finite onto its image. More precisely, in the second chapter, we will treat the case of parameterizations of algebraic rational surfaces. In this case, we give a quadratic bound in the degree of the defining equations for the number of one-dimensional fibers of the canonical projection of the graph of φ onto its image, by studying of the difference between the initial degree of ordinary and saturated powers of the base ideal. In the third chapter, we refine and generalize the results on fibers of the previous chapter. More generally, we establish a linear bound in the degree of the defining equations for the number of (m-1)-dimensional fibers of the canonical projection of its graph onto its image, by using ideals of minors of the Jacobian matrix. In the fourth chapter, we consider rational maps whose source is a product of two subvarieties, each one being embedded in a projective space. Our main objective is to investigate birationality criteria for such maps. First, a general criterion is given in terms of the rank of a couple of matrices that came to be known as "Jacobian dual matrices". Then, we focus on rational maps from P¹ x P¹ to P² in very low bidegrees and provide new matrix-based birationality criteria by analyzing the syzygies of the defining equations of the map, in particular by looking at the dimension of certain bigraded parts of the syzygy module. Finally, applications of our results to the context of geometric modeling are discussed at the end of the chapter.
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Quang Hoa Tran. Images and fibers of rational applications and burst algebra. Algebraic Geometry [math.AG]. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2017. English. ⟨NNT : 2017PA066567⟩. ⟨tel-01900478⟩

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