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Nouvelles approches pour l'estimation du canal ultra-large bande basées sur des techniques d'acquisition compressée appliquées aux signaux à taux d'innovation fini IR-UWB

Abstract : Ultra-wideband impulse radio (IR-UWB) is a relatively new communication technology that provides an interesting solution to the problem of RF spectrum scarcity and meets the high data rate and precise localization requirements of an increasing number of applications, such as indoor communications, personal and body sensor networks, IoT, etc. Its unique characteristics are obtained by transmitting pulses of very short duration (less than 1 ns), occupying a bandwidth up to 7.5 GHz, and having an extremely low power spectral density (less than -43 dBm / MHz). The best performances of an IR-UWB system are obtained with Rake coherent receivers, at the expense of increased complexity, mainly due to the estimation of UWB channel, which is characterized by a large number of multipath components. This processing step requires the estimation of a set of spectral components for the received signal, without being able to adopt usual sampling techniques, because of the extremely high Nyquist limit (several GHz).In this thesis, we propose new low-complexity approaches for the UWB channel estimation, relying on the sparse representation of the received signal, the compressed sampling theory, and the reconstruction of the signals with finite rate of innovation. The complexity reduction thus obtained makes it possible to significantly reduce the IR-UWB receiver cost and consumption. First, two existent compressed sampling schemes, single-channel (SoS) and multi-channel (MCMW), are extended to the case of UWB signals having a bandpass spectrum, by taking into account realistic implementation constraints. These schemes allow the acquisition of the spectral coefficients of the received signal at very low sampling frequencies, which are not related anymore to the signal bandwidth, but only to the number of UWB channel multipath components. The efficiency of the proposed approaches is demonstrated through two applications: UWB channel estimation for low complexity coherent Rake receivers, and precise indoor localization for personal assistance and home care.Furthermore, in order to reduce the complexity of the MCMW approach in terms of the number of channels required for UWB channel estimation, we propose a reduced number of channel architecture by increasing the number of transmitted pilot pulses. The same approach is proven to be also useful for reducing the sampling frequency associated to the MCMW scheme.Another important objective of this thesis is the performance optimization for the proposed approaches. Although the acquisition of consecutive spectral coefficients allows a simple implementation of the MCMW scheme, we demonstrate that it not results in the best performance of the reconstruction algorithms. We then propose to rely on the coherence of the measurement matrix to find the optimal set of spectral coefficients maximizing the signal reconstruction performance, as well as a constrained suboptimal set, where the positions of the spectral coefficients are structured so as to facilitate the design of the MCMW scheme. Finally, the approaches proposed in this thesis are experimentally validated using the UWB equipment of Lab-STICC CNRS UMR 6285.
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Tina Yaacoub. Nouvelles approches pour l'estimation du canal ultra-large bande basées sur des techniques d'acquisition compressée appliquées aux signaux à taux d'innovation fini IR-UWB. Traitement du signal et de l'image [eess.SP]. Université de Bretagne occidentale - Brest, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017BRES0077⟩. ⟨tel-01900128⟩

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