Parcours mémoriels et commémorations en l’honneur de Gustave Flaubert (Rouen-Paris, 1821-2017)

Abstract : The modernity of the Flaubertian writings challenges his contemporaries but makes it possible to understand how Flaubert wishes to be positioned in the margins. He refuses the classic stages of bourgeois life that are marriage, paternity and the purchase of real estate.The history of the construction of the Flaubertian notoriety is also an approach to understand the places of memories. This relationship to the area has been conceived in relation to the defense of a local heritage. We have focused on the complexity of process that bring together rather than distinguish. In order to capture this memory, the study of places becomes unavoidable because it embodies all the conflicting dimension of the Flaubertian figure. In the first part, the aim of the study is to locate Gustave Flaubert in his literary time by highlighting the major turning point represented by Madame Bovary for the history of literature, but also as a foundation for Flaubertian posterity. We explain how the mechanisms of recognition are set up, Flaubert is the main perpetator thanks to his work. We have presented a complex man, not in the episodes of his life but in his role as an artist, both in his ideas and his achievements. Of an insatiable curiosity, that his last unfinished work - Bouvard and Pécuchet - symbolizes, the comments and acts around his death in 1880 offer a face less complex aspect and is more likely to allow a posterity suitable for the greatest number. The second part attempts to understand how this status obtained during his lifetime continues and evolves after his death. Without the determination of some flaubertists, these places of remembrance could not be legitimized. Far from seeking to lock up the memory of the writer, these commemorations are intended to maintain a flaubertian material and physical presence, in contrary his own dimension during his lifetime. It represents the modern figure of an unclassifiable writer going beyond school quarrels. Portraits from 1880 to the celebration of 1921, the considerable distance is long and subject to financial difficulties but also human. The third part depicts the assertion of a patrimonial policy - in the sense of discourse choosing as much by constructed spaces as by temporal cycles. Indeed, thanks to the first committees, heritage achievements are concretized around the first statues, the Flaubert Pavilion and then with his native chamber. The anchoring in multiple sites takes a decisive importance for the actors of the setting in patrimony which take care of "to make them visible" for the general public. The Norman notables tend towards the affirmation of a regional culture. It is the choice of what to celebrate that defines a commemoration policy. These spaces constitute tourist routes in a period of opening towards a new public waiting for a constituted speech. The last part shows how the presence of manuscripts in different places largely affects the organization of Flaubertian celebrations. From academic research groups to learned societies, Flaubertian studies present sometimes conflicting anchors. After the important role played by Caroline Commanville, niece of the novelist, the memory of the writer gains a form of independence. Finally, the digital turning point is not to be neglected. Their new lighting is enabled by these virtual provisions that facilitate the work of researchers but also the interest of simple curious people. We were able to understand that Flaubert's social construction of notoriety was also an acknowledgment of failures and forgotten paths. For the small quarrels in Rouen, after a period of complete silence of his hometown to the great recognition of his genius in the twenty-first century, Gustave Flaubert remains unclassifiable.
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David Michon. Parcours mémoriels et commémorations en l’honneur de Gustave Flaubert (Rouen-Paris, 1821-2017). Histoire. Université de Lyon, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LYSE2047⟩. ⟨tel-01899124⟩

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