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La vision tragique du monde chez les Grecs : (Homère, les tragiques et Platon)

Abstract : This work proposes to examine the tragic vision of the Greeks, going back to its origins, i.e. Homer, in order to see how it is maintained, intensifies, and even finds itself abandoned (in Aeschyluses work or in Sophocleses one). Then we'II see how this vision was completely defeated by Plato's soteriological theology. The tragic vision is a religious vision, structured by the hierarchy of the Fates -Those of the gods, heroes, living men, and the inhabitants of Hades. Between the race of gods and that of humans there is an abyss: the gods are not mortal and humans are not immortal. The constant meddling of the gods in the affairs of humans most often results in suffering, unhappiness, and death. The world after death is a place where souls reside, that of shadows, unconscious of their own existence and the existence of others. At the heart of this vision, man is not fee and does not choose; he is not responsible for his acts and does not deserve what he undergoes. If one suppresses one of these four fundamental beliefs, or if one assists in a decision 111ade by a good, fair, or compassionate god, one cannot speak of tragic vision. Therefore, this work focuses essentially on the texts where it is expressed in all of its purity: Homer (The Iliad), Aeschylus (The Persians), and Sophocles (The Trachiniae, Ajax, Antigone, and Oedipus the King). Particular attention is given to the words that translate it. But a different vision opposes from the Odyssey and Oresteia, an anti-tragic vision which finds its form completed in the religion of Plato. The last part of this work strives to bring out the principal points. Plato assesses that there exists in man an element of divine and immortal nature, hence the substitution of a theology of deliverance and the assimilation to the divine with a theology of separation. The sage replaces the hero, it is no longer the glorious death that is a “beautiful death" and which must be chanted, it is that of Socrates, the servant of Apollo. According to this philosophico-religious thought, man is fee, he makes choices, and he is responsible, and thus deserves from this time forward the punishments and rewards that are in store for him. Furthermore, Platonic theology is fundamentally a theodicy: the gods can only be good, the origin of evil resides in the two souls of the World: the good and the bad. The message of tragic theology is the resignation to the mystery. Plato takes on as a divine mission moving the soul towards salvation, and with this anti-tragic, he creates a different link between the gods, the sages, men, destiny, the afterlife and the psyche.
Keywords : Tragic Greeks Plato
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Khosrow Yazdani Zenouz. La vision tragique du monde chez les Grecs : (Homère, les tragiques et Platon). Philosophie. Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014PA010529⟩. ⟨tel-01898993⟩

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