Electronic structure and transport in the graphene/MoS₂ heterostructure for the conception of a field effect transistor

Abstract : The isolation of graphene, a single stable layer of graphite, composed by a plane of carbon atoms, demonstrated the possibility to separate a single layer of atomic thickness, called bidimensional (2D) material, from the van der Waals (vdW) solids. Thanks to their stability, 2D materials can be used to form vdW heterostructures, a vertical stack of different 2D crystals maintained together by the vdW forces. In principle, due to the weakness of the vdW interaction, each layer keeps its own global electronic properties. Using a theoretical and computational approach based on the Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Keldish-Green formalism, we have studied graphene/MoS₂ heterostructure. In this work, we are interested in the specific electronic properties of graphene and MoS₂ for the conception of field effect transistor: the high mobility of graphene as a basis for high performance transistor and the gap of MoS₂ able to switch the device. First, the graphene/MoS₂ interface is electronically characterized by analyzing the effects of different orientations between the layers on the electronic properties. We demonstrated that the global electronic properties as bandstructure and Density of State (DOS) are not affected by the orientation, whereas, by mean of Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) images, we found that different orientations leads to different local DOS. In the second part, graphene/MoS₂ is used as a very simple and efficient model for Field Effect Transistor. The role of the vdW heterostructure in the transistor operation is analyzed by stacking additional and alternate graphene and MoS₂ layers on the simple graphene/MoS₂ interface. We demonstrated that the shape of the DOS at the gap band edge is the fundamental parameter in the switch velocity of the transistor, whereas the additional layers do not improve the transistor behavior, because of the independence of the interfaces in the vdW heterostructures. However, this demonstrates the possibility to study, in the framework of DFT, the transport properties of more complex vdW heterostructures, separating the single interfaces and reducing drastically the calculation time. The 2D materials are also studied in the role of a tip for STM and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). A graphene-like tip, tested on defected MoS₂, is compared with a standard copper tip, and it is found to provide atomic resolution in STM images. In addition, due to vdW interaction with the sample, this tip avoids the contact effect responsible for the transfer of atoms between the tip and the sample. Furthermore, the analysis of defects can be very useful since they induce new peaks in the gap of MoS₂: hence, they can be used to get a peak of current representing an interesting perspective to improve the transistor operation.
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Daniela Di Felice. Electronic structure and transport in the graphene/MoS₂ heterostructure for the conception of a field effect transistor. Materials Science [cond-mat.mtrl-sci]. Université Paris-Saclay, 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018SACLS267⟩. ⟨tel-01898306⟩

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