Microévolution et bioarchéologie des groupes humains de la fin du Pléistocène et du début de l'Holocène en Europe occidentale : apports de l'anthropologie biologique aux connaissances sur le Paléolithique final et le Mésolithique

Abstract : Environmental changes of exceptional magnitude and intensity occurred during the Late Pleistocene and the Early Holocene in Western Europe. These- some eight millennia- have been divided into chronocultural periods based on typotechnological lithic industries, corresponding to the Late Palaeolithic and the Early and Late Mesolithic. The biological identity of the human groups from this lengthy period of time has never previously been studied in a systematic way, and the anthropological meaning of these divisions remains unclear. In order to fill this gap in knowledge, this thesis presents the results of analyses of an up-to-date sample of 617 skeletal specimens and 251 dental remains covering 70 sites from France, Germany, Belgium, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Italy, Spain and Portugal. Skeletal characteristics, including skeletal proportions- stature, brachial and crural indices -, cranial and mandibular morphometrics, geometric morphometric analysis of the neurocranium, and non-metric skeletal and dental traits were recorded and analysed using a single protocol. All data collected were subjected to suitable descriptive, multivariate and exploratory statistical treatments. Among the results obtained, the metric and morphological analysis of the mandible reveals micro-evolutionary morphological changes related to the intensified exploitation of a broader spectrum of food resources during the Mesolithic. Human groups in coastal zones differ from those located further inland. Coastal groups evince a rather closed system, reflected by a regional structure of bioanthropological data, whereas inland groups, while locally based, are characterized by broader and/or more regular networks of population interaction. Finally, there appears to be continuity between human groups from the Late Palaeolithic to the Early Mesolithic, as well as throughout the Mesolithic in coastal areas, while population discontinuity between the Early and Later Mesolithic is highlighted in the continental area. The arrival of new groups from areas further east, driven by Neolithic population advances through Central Europe from the 7th millennium BC cal is hypothesised, similar to one of the scenarios proposed from the analysis of aDNA.
Document type :
Theses
Complete list of metadatas

Cited literature [833 references]  Display  Hide  Download

https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01897808
Contributor : Abes Star <>
Submitted on : Wednesday, October 17, 2018 - 4:09:31 PM
Last modification on : Thursday, October 18, 2018 - 1:14:11 AM
Long-term archiving on: Friday, January 18, 2019 - 2:43:35 PM

File

SAMSEL_MATHILDE_2018.pdf
Version validated by the jury (STAR)

Identifiers

  • HAL Id : tel-01897808, version 1

Collections

Citation

Mathilde Samsel. Microévolution et bioarchéologie des groupes humains de la fin du Pléistocène et du début de l'Holocène en Europe occidentale : apports de l'anthropologie biologique aux connaissances sur le Paléolithique final et le Mésolithique. Anthropologie biologique. Université de Bordeaux, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018BORD0072⟩. ⟨tel-01897808⟩

Share

Metrics

Record views

308

Files downloads

421