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Inflationary non-Gaussianity : theoretical predictions and observational consequences

Abstract : A powerful probe of the physics at play in the early universe is the Cosmic Microwave Background(CMB). Its anisotropies have been measured recently with high precision by the Planck satellite. These measurements are in agreement with the predictions of inflation, a theory describing a period of fast and accelerated expansion in the early universe. To discriminate between the different inflation models, it is important to look for deviations from Gaussianity of the CMB anisotropies (i.e. non-Gaussianity). This thesis is devoted to the study of non-Gaussianity of the bispectral type (related to the three-point correlation functions) parametrized by its amplitude parameters fNL, both from the theoretical and observational points of view.After an introductory part on standard cosmology, the second part of the thesis describes the method of the binned bispectrum estimator, used to extract information about non-Gaussianity from CMB measurements.In order to recover information about the primordial universe, one has to clean observational data from the contamination caused by galactic foregrounds. We verify the results at the bispectral level. Numerical templates for the temperature bispectra of several galactic foregrounds are determined using data from the 2015 Planck release. These templates are then used to perform joint analyses on raw sky and CMB temperature data maps, to improve the determination of the amount of primordial non-Gaussianity. In the third part, the level of bispectral non-Gaussianity produced in two-field inflation models with standard kinetic terms is investigated using the long-wavelength formalism. It is important to better understand what regions of inflation model space have been ruled out by Planck. We apply a newly derived expression for fNL to the case of a sum potential and show that it is very difficult to satisfy simultaneously the conditions for a large fNL and the observational constraints on the spectral index ns. In the case of the sum of two monomial potentials and a constant we explicitly show in which small region of parameter space this is possible, and we show how to construct such a model. Finally, we also use the new expression for fNL to show that for the sum potential,the explicit expressions remain valid even beyond the slow-roll approximation.
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Gabriel Jung. Inflationary non-Gaussianity : theoretical predictions and observational consequences. Cosmology and Extra-Galactic Astrophysics [astro-ph.CO]. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018SACLS105⟩. ⟨tel-01896732⟩

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