La conductivité électrique des liquides riches en volatils (C-O-H) produits lors de la fusion partielle du manteau terrestre

Abstract : Electromagnetic data images mantle regions more conductive than that of dry olivine. There is no doubt that melt is thermodynamically stable and present in the asthenosphere, but how they can impact on mantle electrical conductivity remains debated. Petrological studies realized some 30 years ago have shown that peridotites exposed at the P-T-fO₂ conditions of the asthenosphere produced H₂O and CO₂ rich-melts, but electrical conductivities of these melts are poorly known. Therefore, electrical conductivity experiments have been performed in piston cylinder on H₂O-CO₂ rich melts. Different melt compositions have been explored, from carbonated melts to basalts. The effects of chemical compositions and volatiles on these melts have been determined. The electrical conductivity measurements have shown that hydrous carbonated melts are very conductive, and the incorporation of basalt decreases the conductivity. With these new data, a semi-empirical law predicting the conductivity as a function of H₂O and CO₂ contents has been produced. Based on this law and the electrical conductivity of olivine, 1D conductivity profiles were constructed. With these profiles, the effect of volatile contents (partitioned between the melt and in the solids), melt fractions (mixing law and interconnection of the melt) and different temperature regimes on conductivity are discussed. These calculations are conducted on oceanic and continental settings with different ages. The electrical conductivities of the mantle is thus a powerful tool to track the fundamental process of mantle partial melting, which is in turn narrowly associated to the cycling of H₂O and CO₂ in the upper mantle.
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David Sifre. La conductivité électrique des liquides riches en volatils (C-O-H) produits lors de la fusion partielle du manteau terrestre. Sciences de la Terre. Université d'Orléans, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016ORLE2092⟩. ⟨tel-01896580⟩

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