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Etudes des propriétés physiques et chimiques de la surface des substrats de Silicium après découpe dans les applications aux cellules solaires photovoltaïques

Abstract : For photovoltaic industry (PV), the optimization of cutting silicon ingot into wafers represents both an economic and a scientific issue. Economic challenge in that it is important to reduce the loss of material induced by cutting. Scientific issue in that it is necessary to understand the impact of sawing on the quality of silicon near the surface. This PhD research work aims to characterize the nature and extent of the damage generated by an innovative cutting technique using diamond wires. A major objective is to evaluate the thickness of the subsurface damage layer (called SSD). In order to characterize the SSD, physical and chemical investigations as a function of depth were performed on either as-cut surface, bevel or transverse sectioned samples or by removal of material by sequential etching in diluted solutions. Sample preparation protocols as well as many characterization techniques were used. In particular microscopy techniques (optical, confocal, electronic SEM and TEM), photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and mechanical strength tests allow multiscale characterization of wafers and coupons. A low bevel angle polishing lets to extend the observation zone of deep defects and to make a statistical analysis. Furthermore, methods from measuring the minority carrier lifetime are used to evaluate the recombination processes on the disturbed layer. The lifetime was obtained by photoconductivity decay (PCD) measurements on SiNx: H and Al2O3 passivated surfaces obtained from PECVD and ALD deposition processes respectively. First, characterizing samples from as-cut wafers indicates that the major defects of the SSD are cracks generated by cutting and propagated into the subsurface. These cracks are distributed over varying and heterogeneous depths depending on the sawing conditions. Second, the results of the sequential removal method show, on the one hand, an effect of the SSD in recombination processes. The evaluation accuracy of this effect is conditioned by optimized surface passivation and reliable measurements of lifetime. On the other hand, an interaction of chemical attack with cracks is shown. This is crucial in the evaluation of the absolute thickness of SSD layer that may impact the solar cells performance.
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Submitted on : Friday, October 12, 2018 - 11:09:09 AM
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Ramzi Souidi. Etudes des propriétés physiques et chimiques de la surface des substrats de Silicium après découpe dans les applications aux cellules solaires photovoltaïques. Science des matériaux [cond-mat.mtrl-sci]. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018GREAY017⟩. ⟨tel-01894192⟩

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