Etude des voies de réparation des cassures double brin de l'ADN lors de la recombinaison suicide du locus IgH en physiologie normale et pathologie du lymphocyte B

Abstract : Mature B lymphocytes meeting with antigen (Ag) inside secondary lymphoid organs activates their terminal maturation, with occurrence of class switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hyper mutation (SHM).Recently, our laboratory described for the first time IgH locus suicide recombination (LSR) (Péron et al., 2012). This process removes the whole constant genes of the locus, preventing Ig and BCR (B Cell Receptor) expression. The B cell is devoid of survival signals delivered by its receptor and is induced to apoptosis.LSR seems to operate with same molecular steps as CSR : 1- transcription of targeted DNA regions, 2- generation of double strand breaks (DSB) from DNA lesions induced by AID (Activation-induced cytidine deaminase), 3- DNA repair by classical non homologous end joining (C-NHEJ) pathway. However, DNA repair during LSR was not fully understood, and this is the principal objectif of my PhD studies.First, we developped a bioinformatic program « CSReport », to analyse high throughput sequencing (HTS) datas of IgH locus junctions (CSR and LSR) (Boyer, Boutouil et al.,2017). This tool allowed us to study the DSB repair systems, through determination of the structure at the junction site. Unexpectedly, our results show that DNA repair in DNA during LSR is similar between mice and human, and if CSR implicates C-NHEJ, LSR seems to invlove Alternative end joining (A-EJ) and /or homologous recombination (HR). These observations are consolidated by results showing a difference in the association of repair proteins, and in particular epigenitic marks between DNA segments concerned by CSR and those targeted by LSR in mice.We asked ourselves about LSR in HL, because BCR absence on its Reed Sternberg cells surface may be a result of this recombination. HTS results reveal a different repair during LSR between HL and the control (healthy tonsils), which let us stipulate that alterations in DNA repair systems of tumoral cells are the cause.Globaly, we developped « CSReport », a tool which permits us to study DNA repair structure in a part, and to show a similar DSB repair systems between mice and human, and a difference between CSR and LSR repair. Furthermore, we show an alteration in DNA repair of B lymphoma samples (HL and CLL) compared with the control (healthy tonsils).
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Hend Boutouil. Etude des voies de réparation des cassures double brin de l'ADN lors de la recombinaison suicide du locus IgH en physiologie normale et pathologie du lymphocyte B. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Limoges, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LIMO0028⟩. ⟨tel-01893576⟩

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