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Le système de santé en Thaïlande et l'origine des inégalités en matière de santé : une analyse politico-économique

Abstract : This thesis uses a political economy frame to analyze Thailand’s health system and its inequalities in health. After identifying the political actors of the health care system and the ideologies on which they are based, it examines the way in which the policies put in work have affected the health and the distribution of health. In Thailand, national trilogy "Nation-Buddhism-King" impregnated the whole political pattern, including health system. It also influenced political agents and political decision-makers in building the Thai social protection system. Influenced by utilitarianism and nationalism, the Ministry of Health had prioritized efficiency, rather than equality, and improved population health in order to increase economic growth. Due to Buddhism, some technocrats have launched health promotion policies based on the concept of Karma that reinforced individual responsibility for health, but ignored social inequalities that affected health-risk behaviors. Royal charities have provided health care for marginalized groups for long times, but many patients still were left untreated. Thanks to these actors, many health indicators were improved, but, at the same time, it increased health disparities between rich and poor, rural areas and urban areas, as between Bangkok and the poorest regions, North and Northeast. In 2001, Thai Rak Thai party launched a new health insurance program providing basic health care for all Thais. Although many reports confirmed the good results of a policy that reduced some inequalities and improved health care access for the poor, it raised the opposition from several stake-holders groups. This new program, based on equal opportunities and the right to health, unintentionally challenged the old policies and the old ideologies in health care justice. As a result, conflicts in health system as well as political instability as a whole constrained the development of new health policies for the next generations.
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Pakpoom Saengkanokkul. Le système de santé en Thaïlande et l'origine des inégalités en matière de santé : une analyse politico-économique. Economies et finances. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018USPCF013⟩. ⟨tel-01893193⟩

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