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Filosofia e historia no pensamento de Eric Weil

Abstract : The philosophy of Eric Weil presents a systematic structure whose interpretation of the components is not easily conceivable. The title “Philosophy and history in the thinking of Eric Weil” proposes a comprehensive reading of the Weilian system aiming at its comprehension through an element that crosses all his work: history. Our fundamental hypothesis is that Weil is the original way of thinking about history, which, even without being a “particular philosophy”, is a hermeneutical principle for the interpretation of its thought. In our view, the theme has not yet found the deserved deepening among those who have been willing to think about Weilian philosophy both by the way the question of the relationship between philosophy and history is usually raised or as a tangent theme in the work or as a brand of his “Hegelianism”. We show that the question of history is taken from an original philosophical perspective by distancing itself from both Hegelian “inspiration” and Heideggerian thought; and fundamental, because Weil’s thinking can not be understood without reference to the reflection on history and the man who is interested in it. Our thesis develops from the task that demands both the presentation of the problems inherent to the design of a philosophy of history, and the determination of the thread that points to its internal unity and to its articulation with the rest of the system. Therefore, with each new step the hypothesis is taken that the reflection on the history serves as legitimate hermeneutic key of the work weiliana. A first requirement has a historical-expository character: to list texts that deal with the questions of thought about history. One should also systematically read the set of texts and their relation to the philosophy system articulated in the Logique de la philosophie, assuming the idea of ​​system as the touchstone of the validity of any interpretation. It is not, therefore, a question of cutting the Weilian corpus in view of the indication of the places where the question appears, but of rebuilding unity between the different parts of his work. Our investigation takes Weil’s work by concentrating on history in its logical-philosophical dimension without dispensing with that historical-political. It is, then, a logical-argumentative perspective that tries to understand a philosophy that is intended dialectic and critical. To do so, we divided the work into four chapters. The first deals with metaphilosophy in Weilian thought from its Kantian inspiration. Our fundamental hypothesis is the return to the affirmation of Weil’s kantism, Kantianism taken up by a philosopher who read and understood Hegel. We start from the definition of philosophy as a human act of one who freely chose to understand the world in a quest for meaning understood as an eminently scientific and communicable activity and, above all, essentially historical. The second is Eric Weil in the wake of philosophers who think of history, always according to Kantian inspiration, which implies associating it with the tradition of a “critique of historical reason” that starts from Dilthey and extends to Weber and Aron. The third takes the conditions of discourses on the meaning of history to the system of discursive categories. Put another way, we follow the categorial succession of the Logique de la philosophie. On the one hand, we discern the motives that hinder a historical discourse from the Truth to the Self, and on the other, we follow the development of the foundational discourses of an understanding of the history of the category of God to Wisdom. The latter constitutes a second part of the work and takes up the task announced as the recovery of the social function of the philosopher, from the Weilian reading of the French Revolution.
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Judikael Castelo Branco. Filosofia e historia no pensamento de Eric Weil. Philosophy. Université Charles de Gaulle - Lille III; Universidade federal do Ceará. Faculdade de filosofia (Crato, Brésil), 2017. Portuguese. ⟨NNT : 2017LIL30051⟩. ⟨tel-01891441⟩

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