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Compromis biodiversité-nuisibilité des communautés adventices dans les systèmes de culture : développement d'une méthode de diagnostic combinant simulations et indicateurs

Abstract : The ambivalent nature of arable weeds, both bioagressors and support for biodiversity, must be taken into account to design more sustainable cropping systems. The aim of this study was to develop a tool and a method allowing the assessment of cropping system performances (i) to reduce weed harmfulness against crops (ii) while promoting the role of weeds to maintain biodiversity in agroecosystems. To do so we developed a set of 10 indicators reflecting the characteristics of weed communities in terms of harmfulness and contribution for biodiversity. The indicators were calculated from outputs of the FLORSYS model, a mechanistic model that predicts multi-specific weed dynamics as a function of cropping systems in interaction with pedoclimate. Following an agronomic diagnosis method, farm surveys were carried out in order to identify contrasted cropping systems in two French agricultural regions. With the new tool resulting from the linking of FLORSYS with the newly developed indicators, the 26 identified cropping systems were simulated and assessed over 30 years with a multi-specific flora and repeated with 10 different weather scenarios. Our results showed an antagonism in most of the studied systems between weed-induced yield loss and maintaining weed-based trophic resources for seed-predating birds and insects as well as for pollinators. However, biodiversity and production goals could be conciliated in certain systems. The analysis of the results with a classification and regression tree method enabled to identify combinations of crop management techniques that optimized one or several indicators. The methodology newly developed in this work has laid the foundations to make possible the design of new weed management strategies.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01890199
Contributor : Delphine Mézière <>
Submitted on : Monday, October 8, 2018 - 3:45:19 PM
Last modification on : Monday, October 19, 2020 - 2:18:02 PM

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  • HAL Id : tel-01890199, version 1

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Delphine Meziere. Compromis biodiversité-nuisibilité des communautés adventices dans les systèmes de culture : développement d'une méthode de diagnostic combinant simulations et indicateurs. Agronomie. Université de Bourgogne, 2013. Français. ⟨tel-01890199⟩

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