« Nous » et les « autres » : discours et construction de la nation dans le Paraguay du Dr. Francia, 1811-1840

Abstract : This study has for object an exploration of the process of independence and nation building in Paraguay, which took place between 1811 and 1840 under the auspices of Dr. José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia. The case of Paraguay is singular in many regards. Beginning in 1811, this province of the Spanish Empire embarked upon a process of independence from both Madrid and Buenos Aires, the capital of the viceroyalty of Río de la Plata. In 1813, the Republic was proclaimed, and, from 1814 until his death, Dr. Francia, after having been elected as dictator, singlehandedly governed the country. These choices were both rapid, and definitive, and give rise to many questions. Dr. Francia was able to implement certain underlying aspirations. These aspirations had their roots in the preceding colonial period, which was characterized by its linguistic, demographic, political, andhistorical differences and by its isolation, abandonment, poverty, and the oppression under which it suffered. The originality of Dr. Francia’s contribution had to do with the fact that he not only conveyed a clearly defined political project which responded to the problems of the past, but also that he proposed innovative means by which he could bring his projects to fruition. He relied fundamentally on discourse in order to arrive at his ends. This discourse was disseminated across multiple channels; furthermore, his various communications encountered no competition, this too contributed to their success. This continuing discourse revolved around the ideas of memory and liberty, as well as promoting the value of republican institutions and the concept of patriotism. Additionally, Dr. Francia used the figure of the foreigner under any guise as the basis for the negative side of his nationalist rhetoric. By portraying the foreigner as a menacing “other”, Francia was able to consolidate the identity defining the particularities of a new “us” group, Paraguayans who, henceforth, belonged to an independent republic.
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Stéphane Bédère. « Nous » et les « autres » : discours et construction de la nation dans le Paraguay du Dr. Francia, 1811-1840. Linguistique. Université de Lyon, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LYSE2035⟩. ⟨tel-01888689⟩

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