Planifier et choisir un itinéraire en milieu urbain : approches plurielles d'un problème cognitif

Abstract : Route planning is an everyday task performed when we want to travel. Even though it is a routine task, researches in problem-solving and spatial cognition domains have revealed that various strategies and cognitive resources are involved (e.g. working memory, spatial abilities, and executives' functions). Some models have been proposed to explain the formation of travel plans. They usually describe the planning process into different stages with or without competition between strategies (Gärling, Säisä, Böök & Lindberg, 1986, Cuntini, Di Fernando, Basso, Bisiacchi & Zorzi, 2008). More ecological studies, i.e. in real situations, have shown the implication of additional factors such as selection criteria, personal and contextual variables. To date however, few studies have taken an interest on the route planning using public transport, even though promote these modes is necessary considering environmental concerns and saturation of traffic in large cities. A question is whether planning and choice processes are modified due to special features of public transports (various modes and changes of modes) and which are the cognitive, psycho-social and contextual factors involved. To answer this question, we conducted four studies to investigate different dimensions of public transport planning activity using various methodologies and paradigms as eye-tracking (study 1), interview (study 2), two alternatives forced-choice (study 3) and virtual reality (study 4). The outcomes of these studies are that the route planning from a network map is a two-step process which becomes more complex with the number of changes of lines (study 1). The analyses of users' experience (study 2) and of different simulations (studies 3 and 4) show that the route choice depends both on the context and the user's profile (spatial abilities, preferences, attitudes, etc.). Results allow us to propose recommendation to better adapt assistance depending on various users profiles, in order to favour the use of public transports. Finally, on the theoretical side, our studies highlight that taking into account only the cognitive facet to build route-planning models is not sufficient, while considering different users' profiles provides a more complete picture of the processes involved.
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Elise Grison. Planifier et choisir un itinéraire en milieu urbain : approches plurielles d'un problème cognitif. Sciences cognitives. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015USPCB200⟩. ⟨tel-01888581⟩



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