Les salariés âgés face aux transformations digitales du travail : du rôle de l'environnement socio-technique dans le développement de l'activité

Abstract : The lengthening of working life has been one of the policy measures taken in order to deal with demographic ageing, and this has led workers to enter the ageing process as they are still working. Work itself has much evolved over the last few decades, as many technical and organizational changes have reconfigured the practices and skills of workers (Caroli, 2001, Greenan, 2003, Vendramin & Valenduc, 2002). Workers age, and will continue to age, in environments ever more shaped by information and communication technologies (ICT). The difficulties that the oldest workers face in adapting to technical and technological change has been well known (Czaja and Sharit, 1993; Greenan, Narcy & Volkoff, 2012) and demonstrated by the resources they mobilize so as to keep on doing “good work.” Our thesis seeks to investigate (a) the effects new technologies have on the activity of older workers as well as (b) the sociotechnical conditions that enable them to accept ICTs. We posit that ICTs are not necessarily detrimental to the activity of older workers as long as the sociotechnical environment enables its development.Using an approach that is at once systemic, situated and developmental, we have collected data by double triangulation – methodologically, as well as by gathering points of view. We have achieved this through semi-directive interviews held with union representatives, occupational health doctors, elderly job seekers and older workers. The aim is to gain better insight into the relation between work and ageing, from different points of view. Observations and verbalization techniques have also been performed to understand the activity of older workers in situ. Finally, clarifying interviews have been held following observations in order to discern which aspects in the experience of each older worker oriented their actions while enabling, or not, the development of their activity.Our findings confirm that the relations between ageing, work and ITCs are complex, as many factors come into play in their configuration and articulation. There appear however to be a certain number of overriding factors: level of initial education; existence of, and belonging to, a work collective; ability to engage in the transpersonal dimension of one’s progression (working tools and “tricks of the trade”); organizational latitude; or the “plasticity” or adaptability of ICTs to the demands of the activity. All these are means for older workers to develop the necessary skills to use ICTs situationally so as to integrate them in their professional practice.
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Florence Cros. Les salariés âgés face aux transformations digitales du travail : du rôle de l'environnement socio-technique dans le développement de l'activité. Psychologie. Université de Lyon, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LYSE2137⟩. ⟨tel-01887751⟩

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