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Contributions to the use of analogical proportions for machine learning : theoretical properties and application to recommendation

Abstract : Analogical reasoning is recognized as a core component of human intelligence. It has been extensively studied from philosophical and psychological viewpoints, but recent works also address the modeling of analogical reasoning for computational purposes, particularly focused on analogical proportions. We are interested here in the use of analogical proportions for making predictions, in a machine learning context. In recent works, analogy-based classifiers have achieved noteworthy performances, in particular by performing well on some artificial problems where other traditional methods tend to fail. Starting from this empirical observation, the goal of this thesis is twofold. The first topic of research is to assess the relevance of analogical learners on real-world, practical application problems. The second topic is to exhibit meaningful theoretical properties of analogical classifiers, which were yet only empirically studied. The field of application that was chosen for assessing the suitability of analogical classifiers in real-world setting is the topic of recommender systems. A common reproach addressed towards recommender systems is that they often lack of novelty and diversity in their recommendations. As a way of establishing links between seemingly unrelated objects, analogy was thought as a way to overcome this issue. Experiments here show that while offering sometimes similar accuracy performances to those of basic classical approaches, analogical classifiers still suffer from their algorithmic complexity. On the theoretical side, a key contribution of this thesis is to provide a functional definition of analogical classifiers, that unifies the various pre-existing approaches. So far, only algorithmic definitions were known, making it difficult to lead a thorough theoretical study. From this functional definition, we clearly identified the links between our approach and that of the nearest neighbors classifiers, in terms of process and in terms of accuracy. We were also able to identify a criterion that ensures a safe application of our analogical inference principle, which allows us to characterize analogical reasoning as some sort of linear process.
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Nicolas Hug. Contributions to the use of analogical proportions for machine learning : theoretical properties and application to recommendation. Artificial Intelligence [cs.AI]. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2017. English. ⟨NNT : 2017TOU30117⟩. ⟨tel-01887642⟩

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