Couplage géochimie-géomécanique dans les milieux poreux insaturés : Tension capillaire – Pression de cristallisation

Abstract : The alteration of porous media in drying conditions is generally attributed to the pressure exerted by growing salts from the poral evaporating solution against the pore wall (crystallization pressure). In drying conditions, the water retained by capillarity in nanometric pores is under absolute negative pressure. Water under capillary tension exerts a mechanical traction against the pore walls but also modifies the chemical equilibria and so rock-fluid interactions. Crystallization pressure and capillary tension, which are physical processes, are both induces by the disequilibrium between poral water and dry air.Salt crystallization experiments in microtubes (Na2SO4, NaCl) show some favorable conditions for crystallization pressure - in terms of supersaturation and geometry – which is transient and brutal. A second series of experiments shows that capillary tension, generated by a nanometric liquid air interface, can be transmitted to a macrovolume of aqueous solution in a particular geometric system built with salts. The tensile state is metastable (superheated), but long enough to modify significantly the chemical budget of the system and to see mechanical effects. The brutal relaxation of the superheating state by vapor nucleation induces a rapid salt supersaturation which is the driving force of the crystallization pressure.The salt growth (during evaporation) and capillarity cooperate in drying conditions to alter porous media.During climate cycles (especially humidity) they control and induce transient and brutal events which mark the end of metastable states (superheating and salt supersaturation).
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Claudie Hulin. Couplage géochimie-géomécanique dans les milieux poreux insaturés : Tension capillaire – Pression de cristallisation. Sciences de la Terre. Université d'Orléans, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017ORLE2028⟩. ⟨tel-01887590⟩

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