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Effet de la bétaïne, de la C-Phycocyanine ou de l'activité physique sur la croissance tumorale du cancer du poumon chez le rat

Abstract : Oxidative stress seems to play a crucial role as a secondary messenger in the regulation of several cellular processes such as apoptosis, survival and proliferation, and could be involved in all steps of the lung carcinogenesis (i.e. initiation, promotion and progression). Physical activity and nutrition are two factors able to modulate oxidative stress and associated mechanisms. Betaine and C-phycocyanin are two known micronutrients having antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects. Previously, our team showed that betaine and/or C-phycocyanin treatment decreased the viability of A549 cells in vitro (pulmonary adenocarcinoma cell line). The main objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of nutritional factors (betaine, C-phycocyanin) or physical activity on growth of implanted A549 cells in Nude rats and to determine underlying mechanisms.Firstly, we studied the effect of nutritional supplementation (betaine or C-phycocyanin) combined or not with voluntary physical activity (wheel running) on redox balance and inflammation in healthy rats. We showed that betaine and C-phycocyanin increased antioxidant defenses, whereas voluntary physical activity did not have an effect when it was not associated with micronutrient supplementation. We also observed that C-phycocyanin inhibited physical activity-induced muscle Cox-2 activity increase.Secondly, we studied the effect of betaine and/or C-phycocyanin on growth of implanted A549 cells in Nude rats. We showed that these two micronutrients, whether associated or supplied separately, slowed down the lung tumour growth through similar mechanisms (NF-kappaB activation and increase of lipid peroxidation and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta, Cox-2 et TNF-alpha) in tumour). Also, some mechanisms were specific for each micronutrient or their combination. C-phycocyanin induced a decrease of phosphorylated AKT / total AKT ratio, and an increase of phosphorylated p38 / total p38 ratio, both mechanisms promoting apoptosis and autophagy. On the other hand, betaine associated with C-phycocyanin increased caspase-3 / pro-caspase-3 ratio.Finally, we studied the effect of voluntary physical activity on growth of implanted A549 cells in Nude rats. We showed that voluntary physical activity slowed down the lung tumour growth, without significant difference if animals were supplied with betaine or/and C-phycocyanin. It seems that the increase of lipid peroxidation, NF-kappaB and p38 activation, and AKT inhibition, all having a role in promotion of a cell death, are responsible for the tumour growth slowdown following the physical activity. In conclusion, diet enriched with betaine or/and C-phycocyanin slows down the growth of pulmonary adenocarcinoma cells implanted in rats, suggesting their interest in anti-cancer activity. Physical activity seems to act on similar mechanisms as these micronutrients. Our results have to be confirmed with further studies, but are already suggesting a potential application in lung cancer patients.
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Carmen Dupuis. Effet de la bétaïne, de la C-Phycocyanine ou de l'activité physique sur la croissance tumorale du cancer du poumon chez le rat. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Clermont Auvergne, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017CLFAS005⟩. ⟨tel-01887153⟩

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