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Etude tectono-thermique d'un segment orogénique varisque à histoire géologique complexe : analyse structurale, géochronologique et thermique du massif des Jebilet, de l'extension à la compression

Abstract : This thesis presents the reconstruction of the tectono-thermal history of the Paleozoic Jebilet massif (Morocco), from its pre-orogenic evolution at the Upper Devonian-Lower Carboniferous to its structuration during the variscan-alleghanian orogeny at the Upper Carboniferous-Lower Permian. To address this issue, this work is organized around two approaches: (1) one metrological applied to the Raman Spectroscopy of Carbonaceous Matterial (RSCM) and (2) the other integrating a structural and geochronological study and a thermicity analysis.The metrological approach allowed to validate the applicability of the RSCM geothermometer (1) in a context of polyphase metamorphism, (2) for carbonate rocks and skarns of Jebilet and (3) to propose a new parameter Raman RSA allowing to better specify temperatures above 500°C and extend the applicability of the method to maximum temperatures of up to 700°C.From the integrated approach, three tectono-thermal episodes were highlighted. The first episode D₀, corresponds to an extensive tectonic allowing the opening of the Jebilet basin at the Upper Devonian-Lower Carboniferous. This opening is accompanied by a HT thermal anomaly as shown by the important bimodal and granodioritic magmatic activity dated between 358 ± 7 Ma and 336 ± 4 Ma and the TRSCM higher than 500°C recorded by the rocks. During Upper Carboniferous, the compressive phase structuring the Jebilet massif begins with the emplacement of superficial nappes (D₁), followed by the variscan major phase (D2). Structural analysis showed a gradual evolution of D₂ deformation regime from coaxial compression to dextral transpression consistent with WNW-ESE to NW-SE horizontal shortening. D₂ is associated with two thermal events, the first is syn-tectonic with TRSCM between 300 and 400°C, and the second is syn- to post-tectonic with TRSCM between 600 and 660°C.This tectono-thermal context would be the expression of geodynamic processes involving from the Upper Devonian a delamination of the Rheic lithosphere by "slab break-off" or "slab roll-back" which would induce (1) the rise of hot asthenospheric current, and (2) the clockwise rotation of Gondwana and its gradual amalgamation with Laurussia structuring the variscan-alleghanian belt during the Upper Carboniferous-Lower Permian.
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Sylvain Delchini. Etude tectono-thermique d'un segment orogénique varisque à histoire géologique complexe : analyse structurale, géochronologique et thermique du massif des Jebilet, de l'extension à la compression. Sciences de la Terre. Université d'Orléans, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018ORLE2003⟩. ⟨tel-01887009⟩

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