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Traçage thermique et géochimique des systèmes hydrothermaux : exemple d'un domaine océanique jeune et d'une marge continentale

Abstract : Hydrothermal processes affect all oceanic domains therby controlling their thermal regime. At global scale, heat flow studies may lead to different interpretations than local studies. Comparing hydrothermal effects in different local contexts is essential to overcome this scale- issues. To do so, we studied the hydrothermal impact on the thermal regimes of a young oceanic domain (Atlantic Ocean) and a young margin (South Balearic). We quantified heat and matter transfers and heat losses with heat flow measurements and pore water chemical analyses. The young oceanic domain is situated on the first segment south of Oceanographer transform fault in the Atlantic Ocean. The low heat flow values indicate that hydrothermal circulations, conveyed by numerous outcrops, extract a lot of crustal heat. The composition of water in pores is similar to that of seawater. This points to a short residence time of water in the basement. We identified that the ruggedness of the seabed is one of the key parameters that control the fluid circulation efficiency. This small scale relief was compared to others regions where hydrothermal processes have already been debated. We deduced an empirical relation which links the fraction of the conductive heat flow to this relief. On the Southern Balearic margin, hydrothermal processes appear to be more limited because of their more local thermal impact. On the continental slope, great heat flow contrasts are highlighted. They suggest that hydrothermal circulation is controlled by numerous volcanic mounts. On one hand, pore fluid chemistry remains close to seawater composition and does not allow confirming these observations. On the other hand, hydrothermal processes in the basin are limited by thick sediment deposits and pore fluid chemistry indicates residual brines and their diffusion towards the surface. Heat flow values along the Southern Balearic margins are perturbed by thermal conductivity contrasts induced by salt diapirs or basement topography. In both study areas, fluid circulations are linked to fractured basaltic structures with a much larger permeability than the surrounding sediments. The seabed’s initial ruggedness and the sedimentation rate control the age range during which the crust is connected to ocean. Nevertheless, fluid circulations cease quickly due to important sediment flows from the nearby continent. This conclusion is partially offset by other events that may occur on the margins such as volcanism or active tectonic.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, October 3, 2018 - 11:11:21 AM
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Virginie Le Gal. Traçage thermique et géochimique des systèmes hydrothermaux : exemple d'un domaine océanique jeune et d'une marge continentale. Sciences de la Terre. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017PA066530⟩. ⟨tel-01886790⟩

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