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Vents et magnétisme des étoiles de type solaire : influence sur la rotation stellaire, la couronne et les (exo) planètes

Abstract : Solar-like stars are believed to generate magnetic fields in their convective envelope through dynamo processes. Magnetic energy is injected in their extended atmosphere, the corona, which is heated up to few million Kelvin. The outward pressure gradient drives a magnetized stellar wind that induces a rotational braking on the star.We first focus on the consequences of this magnetized outflow on stellar rotation. Thanks to 2.5D MHD wind simulations, we quantify the influence of complex topologies of the magnetic field on the efficiency of the braking. We derive a general formulation that accounts for arbitrary complex magnetic topologies using the open magnetic flux. We propose a way to estimate the open magnetic flux for solar-like stars thanks to semi-analytical models, in order to use our formulation in rotational evolution models. We then use 3D simulations constrained by spectropolarimetric maps to study the evolution of stellar winds with age. Our simulations, thanks to prescriptions on the evolution of the coronal base density and temperature, are in good agreement with empirical rotational models. Moreover, we unravel the complex structure of realistic coronae made of dead zones and open regions. We also demonstrate that young and fast rotating stars have a trimodal wind speed distribution due to the magneto-centrifugal effect and superradial flux tube expansion.The last part of this thesis discusses the interaction of stellar winds with planets. We demonstrate that close-in planets, such as hot Jupiters, experience star-planet magnetic interactions that have a significant influence on their migration time scale toward the star. We then quantify the radio emission due to energy transfer between the stellar (or solar) wind and electrons of the planetary magnetospheres through the example of Mercury. This study is a first step toward the characterization of exoplanetary magnetospheres.
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Victor Réville. Vents et magnétisme des étoiles de type solaire : influence sur la rotation stellaire, la couronne et les (exo) planètes. Astrophysique stellaire et solaire [astro-ph.SR]. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016USPCC253⟩. ⟨tel-01886059⟩



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