# Balance properties on Christoffel words and applications

Abstract : Many researchers have been interested in studying Combinatorics on Words in theoretical andpractical points of view. Many families of words appeared during these years of research some ofthem are infinite and others are finite. In this thesis, we are interested in Christoffel words andwe introduce the Lyndon words and Standard sturmian words. We give numerous properties forthis type of words and we stress on the main one which is the order of balancedness. Well, itis known that Christoffel words are balanced words on two letters alphabet, where these wordsare exactly the discretization of line segments of rational slope. Christoffel words are consideredalso in the topic of synchronization of k process by a word on a k letter alphabet with a balanceproperty in each letter. For k = 2, we retrieve the usual Christoffel words. While for k > 2, thesituation is more complicated and lead to the Fraenkel’s conjecture that is an open conjecturefor more than 40 years. Since it is not easy to solve this conjecture, we were interested in findingsome tools that get us close to this conjecture. A balance matrix B w is introduced, where wis a Christoffel word, and the maximal value of this matrix is the order of balancedness of thebinary word. Since Christoffel words are one balanced then the maximal value obtained in thismatrix is equal to 1 and all the rows of this matrix is made of binary words. Testing again thebalancedness of these rows, a new matrix arises, called second order balance matrix. This matrixhas lot of characteristics and many symmetries and specially the way it is constructed since it ismade of 9 blocks where three of them belong to some particular Christoffel words appearing insome levels closer to the root of the Christoffel tree. The maximal value of this matrix is calledthe second order of balancedness for Christoffel words. From this matrix and this new orderof balancedness, we were able to show that the path followed by the fractions obtained fromthe ratio of the consecutive elements of Fibonacci sequence is a minimal path in the growth ofthis second order. In addition to that, these blocks are geometrically found on the Christoffelpath, by introducing a new factorization for the Christoffel words, called Symmetric standardfactorization. Similarly, we worked on finding a direct relation between the second order balancematrix U w and the initial Christoffel word without passing by the balance matrix B w but bystudying the set of factors of abelian vectors. All this work allow us to think about the initialtopic of research which is the synchronization of k balanced words. A complete study for the casek = 3 is given and we have discussed all the possible sub-cases for the synchronization by givingits seed, which is the starting column of the synchronized matrix. The second order balancematrix, with all its properties and decompositions form a good tool to study the synchronizationfor k generators that will be my future project of research. We have tried to use all the knowledgewe apply them on the reconstruction of digital convex polyominoes. Since the boundary wordof the digital convex polyominoe is made of Christoffel words with decreasing slopes. Hencewe introduce a split operator that respects the decreasing order of the slopes and therefore theconvexity is always conserved that is the first step toward the reconstruction.
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### Citation

Lama Tarsissi. Balance properties on Christoffel words and applications. General Mathematics [math.GM]. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2017. English. ⟨NNT : 2017GREAM097⟩. ⟨tel-01885914⟩

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