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Analyses de macrophages : de la lipidomique à l'oxylipidomique

Abstract : Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease characterized by a deposit on the arteries of macrophages full of cholesterol also called foam cells. Currently, three main membrane molecules are described as ensuring the release of free cholesterol, of which ABCA1 (ATP Binding Cassette A1) plays an important physiological role. The purpose of this work is to study the impact of the incorporation of ω3 fatty acids and modified LDL on membrane phospholipids composition and to establish the relationship between modification of the phospholipid composition and functionality of ABCA1. A lipidomic study was conducted using chromatographic methods coupled with mass spectrometry. Analyzes were carried out using normal phase liquid chromatography (NP-LC) allowing the separation of the different phospholipid classes. Detection was performed using low and ultra-high resolution mass spectrometers (MS) and a charged aerosol detector. Gas chromatography is used to determine fatty acids proportions. These techniques were used to study pretreatment parameters, to describe different macrophages lipidome and to establish phospholipid modifications during ω3 fatty acids chronic addition and / or modified LDL. The results obtained made it possible to define a method for LC-MS data pretreatment, to evaluate the composition of three types of macrophages, to model the variations of cholesterol efflux with the phospholipid modifications observed for non-foamy macrophages. From these elements, common themes, chemistry biology, could also be identified as the analysis of "oxylipidome".
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Submitted on : Tuesday, October 2, 2018 - 9:00:07 AM
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Guillaume Sayet. Analyses de macrophages : de la lipidomique à l'oxylipidomique. Chimie analytique. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018SACLS198⟩. ⟨tel-01885529⟩

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