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Rôle des pompes à calcium SERCA3 dans les fonctions plaquettaires

Abstract : The elevation of cytosolic calcium (Ca2 +) is responsible for platelet activation. This elevation is due to the entry of Ca2 + from the extracellular medium (influx) where its translocation (mobilization) into the cytosol from its Ca2+ stores. SERCAs (Sarco / EndoplasmicReticulumCa2 + ATPases) pump Ca2 + from the cytosol to the Ca2+ stores, maintaining low cytosolic Ca2 + (100 nM) and platelets at resting state. On the other hand, they ensure a high calcium concentration (≥ 1 mM) in the Ca2+ stores allowing its mobilization, and finally modulate the intensity and the shape of the Ca2 signal during the activation. However, the respective roles of SERCA platelets, SERCA2b and SERCA3, are still poorly defined. Hence the interest of my project which was to determine if SERCA3 had a precise and specific functional role. We observed in SERCA3 - / - mice a defect in hemostasis that is accompanied by resistance to thrombosis due to ADP secretion deficiency, resulting in a lack of aggregation and adhesion. SERCA3 seems to control an initial pathway of ADP secretion able to acting in synergy with low platelet activation, resulting in increased secretion and aggregation. In addition, the use of specific pharmacological inhibitors of SERCA2b (thapsigargine) or SERCA3 (tBHQ) showed that the initial secretion of ADP was not dependent on the mobilization of SERCA2b stores, but was specifically dependent on SERCA3 stores. We found the same SERCA3-dependent ADP secretion pathway in human platelets. In particular, we observed a defect of platelet aggregation, low Ca2+ mobilization and low platelet SERCA3 levels in a cohort of patients with morbid obesity compared to control subjects. Platelet functions and SERCA3 levels are restored after weight loss by a surgery bariatric. Above all, we found in the platelets of these obese patients, a defect of secretion of ADP associated with the defect of SERCA3. This is the first defect of platelet SERCA3 related to human pathology. We then showed that the initial secretion of ADP was rapid (5 sec) and entirely dependent on SERCA3. Using a membrane fluorescent Ca2+ probe (FURA2-NearMem-AM), we have demonstrated the existence of a juxta-membrane-specific calcium mobilization specific to SERCA3, independently of ADP, corresponding to primary secretion. This SERCA3 mobilization proved to be independent of IP3, but dependent on the NAADP, which specifically mobilizes the SERCA3 and not SERCA2b reserves. In conclusion, we have demonstrated a new platelet activation pathway, independent of IP3 but dependent on NAADP, which releases Ca2 + from SERCA3 dependent stores and specifically involved in the early release of ADP during platelet activation. These data identify new targets with a potential interest of anti-thrombotic therapy.
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Ziane Elaib. Rôle des pompes à calcium SERCA3 dans les fonctions plaquettaires. Biologie cellulaire. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017SACLS310⟩. ⟨tel-01885498⟩

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