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Reconstitution de la variabilité de la mousson indienne et ses impacts environnementaux sur le Nord-Ouest de la Mer d'Arabie et ses bordures continentales depuis le Dernier Maximum Glaciaire : étude multi-proxy d'une carotte marine dans le Golfe d'Aden

Abstract : Core MD92-1002 retrieved from the Gulf of Aden (12°01’32 N- 44°19’02E -1327 m of water depth) provides a unique paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic record to study the evolution of continental and marine environments since 20 ka. I performed palynological analyses (pollen grains, spores, fungi, charcoal, freshwater algae, dinoflagellate cysts, copepod eggs) and combined those data with geochemical (δ¹⁸O, X-Ray Fluorescence) and sedimentological parameters (e.g. sedimentation rates, Total Organic Carbon (TOC)). Pollen grains reveal regional hyper-arid conditions during the glacial period, characterized by sparse vegetation cover of Saharo-Sindian origin. The abundance of steppic taxa associated with charcoal fragments suggests strong wind activity. Humidity tracers increased from 14.9 ka and reached their maximum between 9 and 7.5 ka. This maximum is characterized by the development of the tropical mangrove Rhizophora in the Gulf of Aden, reflecting tropical conditions with summer monsoon rains. The timing of events deduced from palynological records and continental data such as lacustrine and palustrine deposits and speleothems from Socotra and Oman, reveals a northward and westward shift of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) summer position at the onset of the Holocene Humid Period (HHP). The ITCZ was located in southern Ethiopia at 19 ka, then migrated northward to reach Socotra at 14.51 ka, Qunf at 10.4 ka and Hoti at 10 ka. Westward shift of ITCZ is suggested by the development of mangrove (Rhizophora) from 12.5 ka. Core MD 92-1002 reveals that HHP termination took place earlier than over tropical North Africa, in two main steps dated at 7.5 and 4 ka, respectively. Dinoflagellate cyst assemblages suggest that the glacial period was characterized by weakened upwellings and well-ventilated bottom water. Primary productivity in the Gulf of Aden increased from 14.5 ka and reached its maximum during the glacial/interglacial transition between 12.6 and 10.8 ka. It took place about ~ 3 ka earlier than the peak intensity of upwellings off the Oman margin, which is associated with the maximum of SW monsoonal winds. This singularity could be explained by the landlocked position of the gulf, at the junction between two orthogonal wind regimes during the boreal summer season (SW monsoon winds prevailing to the East of the Gulf, while NW winds blow along the main axis of the Red Sea to the west). TOC analysis reveals a Glacial-Interglacial variability that is largely decoupled from our reconstruction of surface productivity, suggesting that organic content is mainly controlled by preservation at the sea floor.
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Wiem Fersi. Reconstitution de la variabilité de la mousson indienne et ses impacts environnementaux sur le Nord-Ouest de la Mer d'Arabie et ses bordures continentales depuis le Dernier Maximum Glaciaire : étude multi-proxy d'une carotte marine dans le Golfe d'Aden. Climatologie. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016SACLS294⟩. ⟨tel-01884402⟩

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