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Exploration des mécanismes de régulation du tonus vasculaire par les phosphodiestérases des nucléotides cycliques et de leur altérations dans un modèle d'insuffisance cardiaque

Abstract : Cyclic nucleotides (CN) appears to be important regulator of vascular tone. Produced in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) by cyclases, CN act through activation of key effectors involved in the regulation of vascular tone. Phoshodiesterases (PDEs), which degrade CN, provide spatiotemporal control of their biological responses. The aim of my work was to understand how vascular tone is controlled by some PDEs and how it is altered during heart failure (HF). For this, I used rat coronary and mesenteric arteries.In the first part of my work, we were interested in defining the contribution of PDE3 and PDE4 in the regulation of coronary tone. Using vascular reactivity technique, we demonstrate the importance of large-conductance Ca2+-activated potassium channel (BK(Ca)) channel in the relaxant effect of PDE3 and PDE4 inhibitor. Moreover, their contribution was different depending on the mode of cAMP production, a type of CN. At the cellular level, Proximity Ligation Assay experiments suggest the existence of a signalosome that involves PDE3/PDE4 andBK(Ca). According to this result, the control of BK(Ca) activity by these PDEs was demonstrated using the Patch-Clamp technique. Interestingly, the contribution of the functional coupling involving the BK(Ca) and PDE3/PDE4 is lost during HF. This may be explained by the decrease of BK(Ca) expression and [BK(Ca)-PDE4B] duplex signal in coronary arteries isolated from HF rat.In the second part of my work, we investigated the role of PDE3, PDE4 and PDE2 particularly, in the regulation of rat mesenteric artery tone during HF. In fact, PDE2 selective inhibitor, decreased the contractile response of isolated arteries. Then, we investigated the effect of PDE2 inhibition in other pathway that involve CN.Our findings underline the complexity of PDEs in the regulation of resistance artery tone. During HF, some CN signaling pathway are impaired leading to vascular dysfunction which can aggravate the pathology.
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Sarah Idres. Exploration des mécanismes de régulation du tonus vasculaire par les phosphodiestérases des nucléotides cycliques et de leur altérations dans un modèle d'insuffisance cardiaque. Cardiologie et système cardiovasculaire. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017SACLS293⟩. ⟨tel-01884172⟩

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