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L'influence de Nicolas Machiavel et Carl Schmitt sur le droit constitutionnel de l'état de crise : étude comparée à la lumière des droits anglais, américain et français

Abstract : A cross-reading of the writings of Machiavelli and Schmitt not only allows us to decode certain past events, it also illuminates our understanding of the most recent challenges to the security of the state. Indeed, both authors conceptualize states of emergency – understood as responses to disorders threatening the preservation of the state not adequately covered by positive law – and their analyses demonstrate points of agreement as well as divergence. Comparing and contrasting them makes salient their lines of force. Both authors shed important light on the Anglo- American and French revolutionary movements of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries as exceptional situations. Moreover, they also provide insight into the more recent emergency situations encountered by these states in confronting the terrorist phenomenon. The interest of such a perspective is twofold. On the one hand, the confrontation of the Machiavelo-Schmittian theory with concrete events demonstrates – despite insurmountable anachronism – their undeniable influence on the operations of law in crisis situations. On the other, from the perspective of their practical application, the theories of Machiavelli and Schmitt both prove inadequate in their apprehension of the exceptional phenomenon, notably with regard to the means that might be deployed to curb the threat. With this in mind, it is imperative to understand both the relevance of the political thought of these two authors, and take the measure of the limits of their theories. A proper understanding of the pertinence and limits of their theories with regard to the present situation should enable us to devise improved legal tools in response to the current crisis.
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Mamadou Beye. L'influence de Nicolas Machiavel et Carl Schmitt sur le droit constitutionnel de l'état de crise : étude comparée à la lumière des droits anglais, américain et français. Droit. Normandie Université, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017NORMLH30⟩. ⟨tel-01883656⟩

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