Les évaluations individuelles du domaine scientifique au collège : investigation et caractérisation des écarts entre les intentions évaluatives de professeurs et la conscience évaluative de leurs élèves

Abstract : This research explores the evaluative process as it is developing in science subjects at middle schools on the teachers' initiative. The originality and the novelty of this study consist of the focus on students in the evaluative interactions inherent in the evaluative process. The aim is to contribute to the intelligibility of students' behaviours, i.e. to explain and to justify the factors that affect student overall actions and reactions to the teacher's evaluative behaviour. While the teacher's evaluative behaviour has been largely explained in previous researches through his or her evaluative intentions and position as an evaluator educational literature has not yet collected sufficient data as regards student characteristics. In this context this investigation examines three interrelated topics denoted as follows. First, the existence of a behaviour characterising students involved in an evaluation situation is postulated. Second, the concept of individual evaluative awareness is proposed in order to take into greater account his or her evaluative behaviour and to establish the existence of the evaluated-student as equally effective. Third, the evaluative interactions are examined through the investigation and the characterisation of divergences between the evaluative intentions of the teacher-evaluator and the individual evaluative awareness of each evaluated-student. With the help of some new methodological approach, the primary goal is to explicit the existence of both evaluative intentions and evaluative awareness, and the second objective is to examine their potential divergences. The case studies are appropriate to these two objectives: the cases presented are specific formal evaluation situations organized to teacher's initiative. Ten case studies and a multiple case study have been carried out: data were collected from nine teachers teaching in three different middle schools belonging to two regional education academies; one hundred five students were contacted throughout five classes (4 classes of "5ème" and 1 class of "4ème", respectively 4 classes of 7th grade and 1 class of 8th grade). From a didactic perspective the investigation focuses on curricular contents, the didactic contract and negotiation, the tasks assigned. These concepts definitely hold a central place in any evaluation situation because the proficient users - teacher and students - have a "symmetrical understanding" of it: this bivalence produces tools for the comparison of the evaluator-teacher's evaluative intentions and the evaluated-student's evaluative awareness. These three concepts intertwined in a formal evaluation situation and conjugate as a system: in any formal evaluation situation, none of the three elements can exist independently from the two others on the one hand, and this system is always present on the second hand. In conclusion, this exploratory research shows the existence of the student individual evaluative awareness when involved in a formal evaluation situation. The correlation between the evaluative intentions and the evaluative awareness is defined by the presence of divergences that emerge concerning under the meaning given respectively by the teacher and each student to the curricular contents, the didactic contract and didactic negotiation, the tasks assigned, globally to the combination of the three concepts regarded as a system. These divergences call into question in an unprecedented manner the finality of a formal evaluation situation for each student and thus the evaluative inferences induced. This research more specifically highlights the idea that the student is a key-player of the formal evaluation situation and not only the object of the evaluation through his or her performance.
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Dominique Raulin. Les évaluations individuelles du domaine scientifique au collège : investigation et caractérisation des écarts entre les intentions évaluatives de professeurs et la conscience évaluative de leurs élèves. Education. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017USPCB204⟩. ⟨tel-01881802⟩

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