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Conception, synthèse et évaluation pharmacologique d’inhibiteurs potentiels de DOT1L impliqués dans la régulation épigénétique du cancer

Abstract : Cancer is a serious issue of public health as it is one of the main causes of mortality worldwide. Despite the multiple available treatments, it is necessary to develop more efficient and less invasive therapies against cancer. The knowledge of the human genome and epigenome has directed research to new cancer treatment approaches: it is possible to modulate the biological outcome by controlling the access to the genetic information by means of the epigenetic regulation.Epigenetics are the changes happening on the genome without modifying its DNA sequence, leading to a heritable andstable phenotype. In the eukaryotic chromatin, epigenetic regulation implies covalent modifications of DNA and histones. These chemical modifications remodel the chromatin structure leading to an “opened” or “closed” configuration, which is related to the expression or repression of genes. The epigenetic landscape is altered in cancers; for example, abnormal methylation leads to the silencing of certain genes (such as tumor suppressor genes), or to the over-expression of oncogenes. Unlike genetic alterations that are irreversible, epigenetic aberrations are reversible. Thus, molecules that can reestablish the epigenetic balance represent potent therapeutic tools for cancer treatment.Methylation and acetylation are the most studied epigenetic modifications. DNA methylation is carried out by the DNAmethyltransferases (DNMTs) and histone methylation by the histone methyltransferases (HMTs).This PhD project was focused on the histone methyltransferase DOT1L (DOT1 like, disruptor of telomeric silencing), responsible of methylation of residue Lys79 of histone 3 (H3K79), which leads to the transcription of some oncogenes. Recent studies have shown that DOT1L is implicated in MLL-rearranged leukemia (MLL-r, Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia) thus it is a potent target in cancer. As DOT1L and DNMTs share the same cofactor, S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM), DNMT and DOT1L inhibitors can present a common inhibition mechanism by competing with SAM.We present herein the in silico – based design, and the multi-step synthesis of some series of molecules containing 3 main moieties: a) an aminopyrimidine motif and b) a benzimidazole or phenylurea motif, linked by c) a phenyl or heterocycle motif. DOT1L activity was determined for the different compounds synthesized and structure-activity relationships (SAR) were established. The activity on DNMT and other HMTs was determined as well, in other to study the DOT1L specificity of our compounds.Different scaffolds were identified to obtain DOT1L-selective or DOT1L/DNMT dual inhibitors. These molecules are interesting therapeutic tools for cancer treatment.
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Omar Castillo Aguilera. Conception, synthèse et évaluation pharmacologique d’inhibiteurs potentiels de DOT1L impliqués dans la régulation épigénétique du cancer. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université du Droit et de la Santé - Lille II, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LIL2S053⟩. ⟨tel-01881173⟩

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