Modélisation cellulaire et simulation physique : contribution à l'analyse de la dynamique de population des insectes ravageurs

Abstract : Insect pests have long been a serious threat to agriculture in many parts of the world. In particular, desert locusts (Schistocerca Gregaria) are the most feared because of the colossal damage they can inflict on a wide variety of crops.The latter, in their breeding environment and a set of climatic parameters, can be assimilated to a biophysical system. A biophysical system associates several components characterized by their own complexity and that of their interactions. For example, rain brings moisture and canopy development that is critical in Desert Locust population dynamics. These biophysical systems can be controlled by various means, including a monitoring network coupling wireless sensors. The integration of biophysical systems and observation networks can be one of the major events of this decade. It allows an exchange between physical cyclical processes and information systems. These can collect and process field data and can also act on the physical system through feedback loops. This integration has been made possible thanks to technological advances noted in the fields of microelectronics and wireless transmission. It is found in emerging fields such as fine agriculture. This thesis is devoted to cellular modeling and simulation of physical systems. For this, a spatial and temporal sampling of a Desert Locust breeding area was carried out using specific tools with different resolutions, in order to generate the cellular systems. These cellular systems contain information such as wind, temperature, relative humidity and rainfall. Spatial sampling allows a migration representation and temporal sampling can track the local evolution of individuals in a cell.Cellular systems are transcribed into communicating process networks and evolve synchronously to reproduce and simulate the phenomenon of intercellular migration and the life cycle of the Desert Locust in a cell. The construction of these systems has been explored in depth, making vary their geographical context, the criteria for classification, the cells, connectivity between processes, collective behaviors.Exploration has focused on the generation of parallel codes and performance at the execution, mainly for the case of lite processes.This work has led to the production of two parametric simulators, the first of which is aimed at Desert Locust population dynamics with a view to assessing the state of the locust situation through coupling between synchronous monitoring networks and biophysical systems. The second allows you to plan the deployment of wireless sensor networks in an area to determine the location of the sensors.
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Mahamadou Traore. Modélisation cellulaire et simulation physique : contribution à l'analyse de la dynamique de population des insectes ravageurs. Autre [cs.OH]. Université de Bretagne occidentale - Brest, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018BRES0011⟩. ⟨tel-01880972⟩

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