Premières productions de céramiques turques en Anatolie occidentale : Contextualisation et études techniques

Abstract : Since the 1990s, archaeometric studies have attested to the production of new types of ceramic in Western Anatolia, linked to the arrival of Turkish populations in the region from the end of the 13th century. Among these new types are ceramics whose shapes and decoration are very commonly found in the Islamic world, and which show the introduction of new techniques of fabrication.Taking a sample of 87 sherds discovered at five Turkish sites and three sites in the Crimea, this study, combining an archaeological approach with physicochemical analyses, enabled us to propose a chronological framework for these initial Turkish productions and to determine the techniques of fabrication of their coatings – slips and glazes – used for the decoration. The definition of these techniques relies in the main on elementary and structural analyses by SEM-EDS and by Raman spectroscopy, the results of which permit us to confirm the use of new recipes and new materials.While the decoration of Byzantine ceramics was essentially constituted of a high-lead transparent glaze, coloured by a reduced range of metallic oxides resting on a clay slip, the decoration of the initial Turkish ceramics, from the Beylik period, produced in the region, were much more varied. Their glazes attest to a greater diversity in the nature of the fluxes and opacifiers, as well as in the colorants used. Considered to be one of the first types of Ottoman ceramics, the Miletus Ware shows the most elaborate decoration. The slip is no longer clay-based but synthetic, prefiguring in this way the later production using synthetic paste of the Iznik Fritwares upon which the fame of 16th century Ottoman ceramics was based. Our study thus enabled us to characterise and contextualise the technical evolution which marked the transition from Byzantine to Ottoman ceramics in Western Anatolia.
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Jacques Burlot. Premières productions de céramiques turques en Anatolie occidentale : Contextualisation et études techniques. Archéologie et Préhistoire. Université de Lyon, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LYSE2061⟩. ⟨tel-01880223⟩

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