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Distribution spatiale de fermions fortement corrélés en interaction forte : formalisme, méthodes et phénoménologie en structure nucléaire

Abstract : The atomic nucleus is intrinsically a complex system, composed of strongly correlated non-elementary fermions, sensitive to strong and electroweak interaction. The description of its internal structure is a major challenge of modern physics. In fact the complexity of the nucleon-nucleon interaction generates correlations which are responsible of the diversity of shapes that the nuclei can adopt. Indeed the nuclei can adopt either quasi-homogeneous shapes when nucleons are delocalized or shapes where spatially localized structure can emerge, namely nuclear clusters. This work is an extension of relativistic mean-fields approach (RMF), which allows an universal treatment of nuclear phenomenology. In a first time we will present the necessary formalism to construct such an approach starting with the fundamental interactions underlying nucleons dynamics within the nucleus. However this approach doesn't allow an accurate reproduction of experimental properties: a purely mean-field approach neglects to many correlations. Existing methods to treat both particle-hole (deformation), particle-particle (pairing) correlations will be discussed. First we will propose a new diagrammatic method, which take correlation into account in a perturbative way, the implementation of this approach using combinatory theory will be discussed. Then we will get back to a phenomenological treatment of particle-hole correlations, to focus on the impact of particle-particle. Formation of nucleonic pair will be discussed in the language of graph theory, allowing several formal simplifications and shed a different light on pairing. Pairing correlations will be at first treated using a relativistic Hartree-Bogolioubov approach. Nevertheless this formalism doesn't conserve particle number, and thus we will present a projective approach to restore it. The effect of this restoration will also be studied. Then to describe general nuclear deformation, several implementations and optimizations developed during this PhD will be presented. With this tools, clusterisation will be investigated as phenomenon emerging for certain class of correlations. Localization measure will be derived allowing a clearer understanding of cluster physics. The analysis of theses quantities makes possible a first unified description of cluster formation both for light nuclei (Neon) or for heavy alpha emitters (Polonium). Cluster emergence will be described as a quantum phase transition, an order parameter will be displayed and this formation will be characterized as a Mott transition. The influence of pairing correlations on cluster formation is studied and a detailed study of pairs spatial properties is performed for nuclei from several mass regions. Lastly a method allowing treatment of 4-body correlations (quartteting) is proposed to explain cluster emergence as alpha particle preformation.
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Submitted on : Monday, September 24, 2018 - 10:59:27 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01879656, version 1



Raphaël-David Lasseri. Distribution spatiale de fermions fortement corrélés en interaction forte : formalisme, méthodes et phénoménologie en structure nucléaire. Physique Nucléaire Théorique [nucl-th]. Université Paris-Saclay, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018SACLS248⟩. ⟨tel-01879656⟩



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