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Impact d’une réhabilitation respiratoire et d’un suivi en activités physiques adaptées chez des patients atteints de pneumopathies interstitielles diffuses fibrosantes

Abstract : Context: The 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and 6-minute stepper test (6MST) are routinely performed to measure and monitor exercise tolerance in patients with fibrosis interstitial idiopathic pneumonia (f-IIP). In those patients, exercise capacity, quality of life and symptoms are usually improved after a pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) program which can either be performed in a rehabilitation centre or at home.Aim: First, we aimed, to compare the cardio-pulmonary adaptations during a 6MWT and a 6MST in patients with f-IIP, before and after PR. We aimed to assess patients’ adhesion to physical activity maintenance programs which are offered and located near the f-IIP patient's homes. And their efficiency in maintaining benefits observed post-PR.Methods: All the f-IIP patients included followed a 8-week PR program at home. During the post-PR follow-up period, patients voluntarily chose to perform physical activity in a structure proposed by the investigator (APA group), or by themselves at home (control group). Before and after the PR program, we quantified the patient's exercise capacity (6MWT and 6MST) and measured cardiopulmonary parameters during both tests, pulmonary function at rest, quality of life, dyspnoea at rest and after each exercise, anxiety/depression and patients’ motivation. The same evaluations were repeated at 6 and 9 months post-PR.Results: Among the 21 recruited f-IIP patients, 19 finished the PR program and had an evaluation at 6 months post-PR. The 6MST was characterized by a higher minute ventilation compared with the 6MWT, and this may have contributed to the lower O2 desaturation also observed during the 6MST. Following the PR program, there was a mean improvement of exercise tolerance in f-IIP patients. However, among the patients, 58% showed no improvement in the 6MWT distance post-PR nor in the cardiorespiratory parameters during the test, and 32% did not continue to practise a regular physical activity post-PR. Finally, the individual support from the investigators for the patients to follow a maintenance program in local structures, near the f-IIP patient's home, probably contributed to their voluntary inscription in these programs, which allowed the patients to maintain the post-PR benefits, whether they patients initially responded to the PR program or not.Conclusion: Our works emphasized the importance of selecting an appropriate test, according to the fixed objective; of the f-IIP clinicopathological entities, and of the hypoxemia severity on exercise cardiorespiratory and physiological adaptations and changes of exercise tolerance post-PR. Moreover, we observed that patients from the APA group regularly attended the chosen physical maintenance program in local structures, which contributed to the maintenance the post-PR benefits in f-IIP. The evaluation of physical activity engagement barriers, that lead to the non-participation of a third of f-IIP patients to physical activities post-PR, remains to be conducted. Further studies should also focus on the explanation for the absence of improvement of exercise tolerance and cardiorespiratory parameters in about half of f-IIP patients post-RR, either due to their pathology, medication, or possible muscle disorders.
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Baptiste Chéhère. Impact d’une réhabilitation respiratoire et d’un suivi en activités physiques adaptées chez des patients atteints de pneumopathies interstitielles diffuses fibrosantes. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université du Droit et de la Santé - Lille II, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LIL2S054⟩. ⟨tel-01878673⟩

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