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Amélioration des outils géochimiques pour l'investigation des paléoenvironnements

Abstract : The history of stable isotopes began in 1913 with the work of Frederick Soddy. Since then, analytical techniques in that domain have been in constant evolution, providing answers to more and more elaborated scientific questions and spreading into various application fields where their tracing abilities have become extremely useful today. This work first describes the evolution of those analytical techniques through time and especially the fundamental step forward with continuous flow techniques especially through elemental analysis. For the second part we illustrate the importance of stable isotope analyses for paleoenvironmental reconstructions to better understand the climatic history of the Earth and its inhabitants from different periods. This is mainly based on 180/160 analyses from phosphatic or carbonaceous matrices. The third part is dedicated to the use of stable isotopes as tracers of various fundamental metabolic pathways from both fossil and actual samples. For this latter case we have used the capacity of stable isotopes to be used at natural abundance as well as artificially labelled. We have used 180/160 isotopic signatures from phosphatic samples as well as 13C/12C and 15N/14N from organic matter. The fourth part is dedicated to analytical developments covering several domains. First we investigated D/H and 180/160 measurements from waters. We are proposing new correction parameters for isotopic measurements from waters with salinity higher than sea water. Then we have dealt with 13C/12C and 180/160 isotopic analyses from carbonates and we suggest new parameters to constrain oxygen isotopic fractionation between carbonates from apatite and water as well as carbon and oxygen isotopic fractionation between calcite and aragonite from actual living organisms. We have also developed a new semi-automated technique to measure carbon and oxygen isotopic signatures from calcite and dolomite mixtures with various proportions. Then we have attempted to quantify the natural and instrumental variability of oxygen and carbon isotopic analyses from microfossils. An important part of this analytical work has been dedicated to 180/160 isotopic analyses from biogenic phosphate material. ln collaboration with instrument manufacturers we have developed a new system to improve both quality and automation of those measurements as well as reduce the aliquot sizes in order to get access to smaller samples. Eventually we have developed sulfur isotopic analyses in collaboration with instrument manufacturers to evaluate the capacities of a new analytical setup to generate reliable N, C, S multi- isotopic analyses. Last, we summarize the contribution of this work to the evolution of stable isotope techniques and we try to evaluate the future fields of investigation for those techniques just over one hundred years old
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François Fourel. Amélioration des outils géochimiques pour l'investigation des paléoenvironnements. Autre. Université Claude Bernard - Lyon I, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014LYO10206⟩. ⟨tel-01878217⟩

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