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Activation of phosphodiesterase type 2 to treat heart failure

Abstract : Cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cyclic GMP (cGMP) are critical second messengers for the regulation of cardiac function. Intracellular cAMP concentration is regulated by the activities of at least two families of enzymes: adenylyl and guanylyl cyclases, responsible for cAMP and cGMP synthesis and cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) that mediate cAMP and cGMP hydrolysis.Among the PDE superfamily, PDE2 is a dual substrate enzyme that hydrolyzes both cAMP and cGMP and has the unique property to be stimulated by cGMP. It was recently showed that myocardial PDE2 is increased in human and experimental heart failure (HF), while other PDEs (e.g. PDE3 and PDE4) are reduced. However, the pathophysiological consequences of enhanced PDE2 activity in the heart are unknown.In this context, we generated a transgenic (TG) mouse with a heart specific overexpression of the PDE2A3 isoform (PDE2 TG mouse). Using immunoblotting and radioenzymatic assay we showed that total cardiac cAMP and cGMP PDE activity and specific PDE2 activity was strongly increased in PDE2 TG compared to wild type (WT) mice. Sarcomere shortening, Ca2+ transients and the whole L-type Ca2+ current (ICa,L) were recorded in adult ventricular myocytes from WT and PDE2 TG mice and isoprenaline (ISO) was used to examine and compare the β-adrenergic (β-AR) response of these parameters. We showed that upon β-AR stimulation, cell contractility, Ca2+ transient and ICa,L were severely blunted. Accordingly, PDE2 overexpression in cardiomyocytes reduced the cAMP levels and abolished the inotropic effect following acute β-AR stimulation. ECG telemetry in PDE2 TG mice showed a marked reduction in resting as well as in maximal heart rate, while cardiac output was completely preserved due to greater contractility. Importantly, PDE2 TG mice were resistant to triggered ventricular arrhythmias and to isoprenaline-induced arrhythmias.In conclusion, this work demonstrates that PDE2 plays a critical role in the regulation of cardiac excitation-contraction coupling. PDE2 overexpression appears to protect the cardiomyocytes against excessive β-AR drive and reduces the risk of arrhythmias during sympathetic activation. PDE2 activation may thus represent a new subcellular anti-adrenergic and anti-arrhythmic therapeutic strategy in HF.
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Marta Lindner. Activation of phosphodiesterase type 2 to treat heart failure. Tissues and Organs [q-bio.TO]. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2016. English. ⟨NNT : 2016SACLS336⟩. ⟨tel-01877874⟩

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