Dépense des ménages pour leur mobilité quotidienne : une approche par les formes urbaines

Abstract : Daily mobility is at the heart of debate on urban sustainability. A mean to carry out our daily activities and a key to social interactions, economic aspects and especially household expenditures linked to mobility are a major current issue.This thesis proposes a discussion on the interactions between urban form and daily mobility through mobility expenditures. Two interrelated methods of analysis are used to investigate these interactions.The first one relies on a comprehensive understanding of the effects of the built environment on daily mobility budgets. Household surveys are especially suited to this analysis because they provide a wealth of information on individuals’ attributes, their mobility, equipment, opinions and housing characteristics. Combined with various local or national databases, it is possible to estimate a household budget for every surveyed household. The case study for this analysis is the Lyon urban area. It contains very different built environments, and hosts a diverse array of transport modes. Furthermore, numerous databases are available for our analysis.First, we build a typology of territories based on the main daily mobility determinants: density, diversity, design, accessibility to destinations, distance to transit and demography. Then, an analytical framework of relations between urban form and daily mobility is built to identify three indicators to apprehend them: motorization, modal choice and distance per mode. This typology of territories is tested on these three indicators and appears to be highly significant. An analysis of the mobility evolution between 1995 and 2015 also identify various new issues related to prices, behavioral and demographic evolutionsThis line of questioning is extended through the identification and quantification of the effects of built environment characteristics on household mobility budgets. Using a Structural Equation Modelling method, causal paths between local urban form and household expenditures are presented. This method is applied to different types of population and territories – workers and retired households of the Lyon agglomeration then on the same types in suburban areas – in order to understand householdmobility budgets.The second method consists of testing various morphological and functional organizations of the territory in order to measure their effects on daily mobility budgets. This work is conducted using a land use and interaction model (LUTI), SIMBAD, which allows us to conduct a systemic and multiscale analysis of urban form on daily mobility budgets. Different scenarios of urban form are thereafter simulated, contributing to the debate on the durability of monocentric, sprawled or polycentric citiesin a Transit Oriented Development urban form. Besides, lessons learned from data processing of Households Surveys encourage us to conduct a multiscale analysis. A discussion on the differentiation of impacts depending on the global form of the territory is conducted.This thesis work presents innovative methodological elements to analyze the interactions between urban form and mobility budgets, including the construction of structural equations models and the use of a LUTI model to simulate urban environments. It also offers novel results, which contribute to the current scientific literature.
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Nicolas Pelé. Dépense des ménages pour leur mobilité quotidienne : une approche par les formes urbaines. Géographie. Université de Lyon, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LYSE2022⟩. ⟨tel-01876270⟩

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