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Capacité de la mémoire de travail et son optimisation par la compression de l'information

Abstract : Simple span tasks are tasks commonly used to measure short-term memory, while complex span tasks are usually considered typical measures of working memory. Because complex span tasks were designed to create a concurrent task, the average span is usually lower (4 ± 1items) than in simple span tasks (7±2 items). One possible reason for measuring higher spansduring simple span tasks is that participants can take profit of the spare time between the stimuli to detect, and recode regularities in the stimulus series (in the absence of a concurrent task), and such regularities can be used to pack a few stimuli into 4 ± 1 chunks. Our main hypothesis was that information compression in immediate memory is an excellent indicator for studying the relationship between immediate-memory capacity and fluid intelligence. The idea is that both depend on the efficiency of information processing, and more precisely, on the interaction between storage and processing. We developed various span tasks measuringa chunking capacity, in which compressibility of memoranda was estimated using different algorithmic complexity metrics. The results showed that compressibility can be used to predictworking-memory performance, and that fluid intelligence is well predicted by the ability to compress information.We conclude that the ability to compress information in working memoryis the reason why both manipulation and retention of information are linked to intelligence.
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Mustapha Chekaf. Capacité de la mémoire de travail et son optimisation par la compression de l'information. Psychologie. Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017UBFCC010⟩. ⟨tel-01876171⟩

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