. .. Modélisation-directe-de-l'océan,

, Un modèle de circulation générale de l

. .. Biogéochimie,

. .. Ajout-de-radio-isotopes-dans-un-modèle-préexistant,

.. .. Outils,

M. Inverse-du, , vol.228

K. Kawakami and . Chen, , 2008.

. South-pacific-ocean-moore-;-broecker, , 1969.

. Moore,

G. Gp16,

. Indian-ocean-moore-;-broecker, , 1969.

. Moore-;-nozaki, , 1997.

. Arctic-ocean-broecker, , 1973.

. Southern-ocean-kaufman, , 1973.

. .. Résumé, 155 7.2 An estimate of thorium 234 partition coefficient through global inverse modeling

. .. Results, 2.3.1 Model sensitivity and correlation: which partition coefficients can be constrained ?, p.176

. .. Discussion, , p.181

, List of 234 Th activity and particle concentration sources. sPOC = small particulate organic carbon, bPOC = large particulate organi carbon, cal = calcite, bSi = biogenic silica

L. Moigne, , 2013.

L. Moigne,

. Owens, , 2014.

. Owens, , 2014.

, Yes (> 1 µm) cal, bSi

. Pacific-ocean-matsumoto, , 1969.

. Knauss, , 1978.

B. Coale, , 1978.

. Murray, , vol.6, 1987.

. Buesseler, , 1995.

B. Spoc and C. Cochran, , 2003.

. Charette, , p.29, 1996.

H. Kawakami, , 2002.

. Buesseler, , 2009.

. Moran, , 2012.

. Zhou, , p.24, 2012.

, Yes (> 1 µm) Indian Ocean JGOFS-INDIA, 2013.

. Buesseler, , 2003.

, µm) sPOC, bPOC JGOFS-INDIA, 2013.

. Arctic-ocean-amiel, , 2002.

. Coppola, , 2002.

, Yes (> 0.6 µm)

. Gipy11-(cai, , 2010.

L. Moigne,

. Roca-martí, , 2016.

. Buesseler, , 2003.

, µm) sPOC, bPOC Coppola and Jeandel, 2004.

, Yes (> 0.6 µm)

. Morris, , p.10, 2004.

R. Van-der-loeff, , 2007.

. Gipy5-(rutgers-van-der-loeff, , 2011.

. Gipy4-(planchon, , p.21, 2013.

. Roca-martí, , 2017.

L. Moigne,

D. Bibliographie-amiel, J. K. Cochran, and D. J. Hirschberg, 234 Th/ 238 U disequilibrium as an indicator of the seasonal export flux of particulate organic carbon in the North Water, Deep Sea Research Part II, vol.49, pp.5191-5209, 2002.

P. Andrich, Développement de modèles numériques océaniques pour l'´ etude du couplage océan-atmosphère en zone tropicale, 1989.

P. Andrich and G. Madec, Performance evaluation for an ocean general circulation model : vectorization and multitasking, Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on Supercomputing, pp.295-298, 1988.
DOI : 10.1145/55364.55393

P. Andrich, P. Delecluse, C. Levy, and G. Madec, A multitasked general circulation model of the ocean, Science and Engineering on Cray Supercomputers, pp.407-428, 1988.

A. L. Annett, S. F. Henley, P. Van-beek, M. Souhaut, R. Ganeshram et al., Use of radium isotopes to estimate mixing rates and trace sediment inputs to surface waters in northern Marguerite Bay, Antarctic Science, vol.25, pp.445-456, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00984535

A. Arakawa, Design of the UCLA general circulation model, 1972.

R. Asselin, Frequency filter for time integrations, Monthly Weather Review, vol.100, pp.487-490, 1972.

O. Aumont and L. Bopp, Globalizing results from ocean in situ iron fertilization studies, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, vol.20, 2006.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00138103

O. Aumont, E. Maier-reimer, S. Blain, and P. Monfray, An ecosystem model of the global ocean including Fe, Si, P colimitations, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, vol.17, p.1060, 2003.

O. Aumont, C. Ethé, A. Tagliabue, L. Bopp, G. et al., PISCES-v2 : an ocean biogeochemical model for carbon and ecosystem studies, Geoscientific Model Development, vol.8, pp.2465-2513, 2015.
DOI : 10.5194/gmdd-8-1375-2015

URL : https://doi.org/10.5194/gmdd-8-1375-2015

O. Aumont, M. Van-hulten, M. Roy-barman, J. Dutay, C. Ethé et al., Variable reactivity of particulate organic matter in a global ocean and biogeochemical model, Biogeosciences, vol.14, pp.2321-2341, 2017.

M. Bacon, R. Van-der-loeff, and M. M. , Removal of thorium-234 by scavenging in the bottom nepheloid layer of the ocean, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.92, pp.157-164, 1989.

M. P. Bacon and R. F. Anderson, Distribution of thorium isotopes between dissolved and particulate forms in the deep sea, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.87, pp.2045-2056, 1982.

M. P. Bacon, J. K. Cochran, D. Hirschberg, T. R. Hammar, and A. P. Fleer, Export flux of carbon at the equator during the EqPac time-series cruises estimated from 234 Th measurements, Deep Sea Research Part II : Topical Studies in Oceanography, vol.43, pp.1133-1153, 1996.

A. D. Barton, S. Dutkiewicz, G. Flierl, J. Bragg, and M. J. Follows, Patterns of diversity in marine phytoplankton, Science, vol.327, pp.1509-1511, 2010.

W. M. Berelson, Particle settling rates increase with depth in the ocean, Deep Sea Research Part II : Topical Studies in Oceanography, vol.49, pp.102-105, 2002.

R. E. Bernstein, R. H. Byrne, and J. Schijf, Acantharians : a missing link in the oceanic biogeochemistry of barium, Deep-Sea Research, vol.45, pp.95-97, 1998.

S. G. Bhat, S. Krishnaswamy, D. Lal, M. Rama, and W. S. , 234 Th/ 238 U ratios in the ocean, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.5, pp.483-491, 1969.

D. Bianchi, E. D. Galbraith, D. A. Carozza, K. A. Mislan, and C. A. Stock, Intensification of open-ocean oxygen depletion by vertically migrating animals, Nature, vol.6, pp.545-548, 2013.
DOI : 10.1038/ngeo1837

J. K. Bishop, J. M. Edmond, D. R. Ketten, M. P. Bacon, and W. B. Silker, The chemistry, biology, and vertical flux of particulate matter from the uppper 400m of the equatorial Atlantic Ocean, Deep-Sea Research and Oceanographic Abstracts, vol.24, pp.511-548, 1977.

P. Brewer, G. Sarmiento, J. L. Smethie, and W. M. , The Transient Tracers in the Ocean (TTO) program : The North Atlantic study, The Tropical Atlantic Study, vol.90, pp.6903-6905, 1981.

W. S. Broecker and T. Peng, Tracers in the sea, 1982.

W. S. Broecker, R. Gerard, M. Ewing, and B. Heezen, Natural radiocarbon in the Atlantic Ocean, vol.65, pp.2903-2931, 1960.
DOI : 10.1029/jz065i009p02903

W. S. Broecker, A. Kaufman, and R. M. Trier, The residence time of thorium in surface sea water and its implications regarding the rate of reactive pollutants, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.20, pp.35-44, 1973.

K. W. Bruland and M. C. Lohan, The Oceans and Marine Geochemistry, chap. Controls of Trace Metals in Seawater, pp.23-47, 2003.

K. Bryan, A numerical method for the study of the circulation of the world Ocean, Journal of Computational Physics, vol.4, pp.347-376, 1969.

K. Buesseler, J. A. Andrews, M. C. Hartman, R. Belastock, and F. Chai, Regional estimates of the export flux of particulate organic carbon derived from thorium-234 during the JGOFS EqPac program, Deep Sea Research Part II : Topical Studies in Oceanography, vol.42, pp.777-804, 1995.

K. Buesseler, L. Ball, J. Andrews, C. Benitez-nelson, R. Belastock et al., Upper ocean export of particulate organic carbon in the Arabian Sea derived from thorium-234, Deep Sea Research Part II : Topical Studies in Oceanography, vol.45, pp.2461-2487, 1998.

K. O. Buesseler, Thorium 234 activity in particulate and dissolved phases at station AT II-119, vol.4, pp.4-5, 2003.

K. O. Buesseler, Thorium 234 in particulate and dissolved phases

P. Pon, , 2003.

K. O. Buesseler, Thorium 234 in particulate and dissolved phases, POC and PON from pump cast, 2003.

K. O. Buesseler, C. H. Lamborg, P. W. Boyd, P. J. Lam, T. W. Trull et al., Revisiting carbon flux through the ocean's twilight zone, Science, vol.316, pp.567-570, 2007.

K. O. Buesseler, S. Pike, K. Maiti, C. H. Lamborg, D. A. Siegel et al., Thorium-234 as a tracer of spatial, temporal and vertical variability in particle flux in the North Pacific, Deep Sea Research Part I : Oceanographic Research Papers, vol.56, pp.1143-1167, 2009.

A. B. Burd, S. B. Moran, J. , and G. A. , A coupled adsorption-aggregation model of the POC/ 234 Th ratio of marine particles, Deep Sea Research Part I : Oceanographic Research Papers, vol.47, pp.103-120, 2000.

A. B. Burd, G. A. Jackson, and S. B. Moran, The role of the particle size spectrum in estimating POC fluxes from 234 Th/ 238 U disequilibrium, Deep Sea Research Part I : Oceanographic Research Papers, vol.54, pp.897-918, 2007.

W. C. Burnett, J. B. Cowart, D. , and S. , Radium in the Suwannee River and Estuary, Biogeochemistry, vol.10, pp.237-255, 1990.
DOI : 10.1007/bf00003146

W. C. Burnett, H. Bokuniewicz, M. Huettel, W. S. Moore, and M. Taniguchi, Groundwater and pore water inputs to the coastal zone, Biogeochemistry, vol.66, pp.3-33, 2003.

W. C. Burnett, P. K. Aggarwal, A. Aureli, H. Bokuniewicz, J. E. Cable et al., Quantifying submarine groundwater discharge in the coastal zone via multiple methods, Science of The Total Environment, vol.367, pp.498-543, 2006.

P. Cai, Y. Huang, M. Chen, L. Guo, G. Liu et al., New production based on 228 Ra-derived nutrient budgets and thorium-estimated POC export at the intercalibration station in the South China Sea, Deep Sea Research Part I : Oceanographic Research Papers, vol.49, pp.53-66, 2002.

P. Cai, M. Rutgers-van-der-loeff, I. Stimac, E. Nöthig, K. Lepore et al., Low export flux of particulate organic carbon in the central Arctic Ocean as revealed by 234 Th : 238 U disequilibrium, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.115, 2010.

X. Capet, J. C. Mcwilliams, M. J. Molemaker, and A. F. Shchepetekin, Mesoscale to submesoscale transition in the California Current system. Part I : Flow structure, eddy flux, and observational tests, Journal of Physical Oceanography, vol.38, pp.29-43, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00495911

M. Carr, M. A. Friedrichs, M. Schmeltz, M. N. Aita, D. Antoine et al., A comparison of global estimates of marine primary production from ocean color, Deep Sea Research Part II : Topical Studies in Oceanography, vol.53, pp.741-770, 2006.

M. A. Charette and B. S. Moran, Rates of particle scavenging and particulate organic carbon export estimated using 234 Th as a tracer in the subtropical and equatorial Atlantic Ocean, Deep Sea Research Part II : Topical Studies in Oceanography, vol.46, pp.885-906, 1999.

M. A. Charette, S. B. Moran, and J. K. Bishop, Th as a tracer of particulate organic carbon export in the subarctic northeast Pacific Ocean, Deep Sea Research Part II : Topical Studies in Oceanography, vol.46, pp.2833-2861, 1999.

M. A. Charette, K. A. Buesseler, and J. E. Andrews, Utility of radium isotopes for evaluating the input and transport of groundwater-derived nitrogen to a Cape Cod Estuary, Limnology and Oceanography, vol.46, pp.465-470, 2001.

M. A. Charette, M. E. Gonneea, P. J. Morris, P. Statham, G. Fones et al., Radium isotopes as tracers of iron sources fueling a Southern Ocean phytoplankton bloom, Deep Sea Research Part II : Topical Studies in Oceanography, vol.54, 1989.

M. A. Charette, C. F. Breier, P. B. Henderson, S. M. Pike, I. I. Rypina et al., Radium-based estimates of cesium isotope transport and total direct ocean discharge from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident, Biogeosciences, vol.10, pp.2159-2167, 2013.

M. A. Charette, P. J. Morris, P. B. Henderson, M. , and W. S. , Radium isotope distributions during the US GEOTRACES North Atlantic cruises, Marine Chemistry, vol.177, pp.184-195, 2015.
DOI : 10.1016/j.marchem.2015.01.001

M. A. Charette, P. J. Lam, M. C. Lohan, E. Y. Kwon, V. Hatje et al., Coastal ocean and shelf-sea biogeochemical cycling of trace elements and isotopes : lessons learned from GEOTRACES, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A : Mathematical,Physical and Engineering Sciences, vol.374, 2016.
DOI : 10.1098/rsta.2016.0076

URL : http://europepmc.org/articles/pmc5069537?pdf=render

M. Chartier, Un modèle numérique tridimensionnel auxéquationsauxéquations primitives de la circulation générale de l'océan, 1985.

Z. Chase, R. F. Anderson, M. Q. Fleisher, and P. W. Kubik, The influence of particle composition and particle flux on scavenging of Th, Pa and Be in the ocean, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.204, pp.215-229, 2002.

J. H. Chen, R. L. Edwards, and H. J. Wasserburg, 238 U, 234 U and 232 Th in seawater, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.80, issue.86, pp.90108-90109, 1986.

W. Chen, Q. Liu, C. Huh, M. Dai, and Y. Miao, Signature of the Mekong River plume in the western South China Sea revealed by radium isotopes, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.115, 2010.

H. Cho and G. Kim, Determining groundwater Ra end-member values for the estimation of the magnitude of submarine groundwater discharge using Ra isotope tracers, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.43, pp.3865-3871, 2016.

T. J. Chow and E. D. Goldberg, On the marine geochemistry of barium, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol.20, pp.90073-90082, 1960.

C. Chuang, P. H. Santschi, Y. Ho, M. H. Conte, L. Guo et al., Role of biopolymers as major carrier phases of Th, Pa, Pb, Po and Be radionuclides in settling particles from the Atlantic Ocean, Marine Chemistry, vol.157, pp.131-143, 2013.

S. L. Clegg and M. Whitfield, A generalized model for the scavenging of trace metals in the open ocean-II. Thorium scavenging, Deep Sea Research Part I : Oceanographic Research Papers, vol.38, pp.91-120, 1991.

K. H. Coale and K. W. Bruland, 234 Th : 238 U disequilibria within the Califomia Current, Limnology and Oceanography, vol.30, pp.22-33, 1985.

J. K. Cochran, K. O. Buesseler, M. P. Bacon, and H. D. Livingston, Thorium isotopes as indicators of particle dynamics in the upper ocean : results from the JGOFS North Atlantic Bloom Experiment, Deep Sea Research Part I : Oceanographic Research Papers, pp.1569-1595, 1993.

J. R. Cochran and J. K. Cochran, Thorium 234 activity in particulate and dissolved phases at station TT008 5-Pump2, 2003.

J. K. Cochran, K. O. Buesseler, M. P. Bacon, H. W. Wang, D. J. Hirschberg et al., Short-lived thorium isotopes ( 234 Th, 228 Th) as indicators of POC export and particle cycling in the Ross Sea, Southern Ocean, Deep Sea Research Part II : Topical Studies in Oceanography, vol.47, pp.3451-3490, 2000.

S. L. Colbert, Ra isotopes in San Pedro Bay, CA : Constraint on inputs and use of nearshore distribution to compute horizontal eddy diffusion rates, 2004.

L. Coppola and C. Jeandel, Thorium radionuclides analysed at bottle station ANTARES-IV 004, 2004.

L. Coppola, M. Roy-barman, P. Wassmann, S. Mulsow, J. et al., Calibration of sediment traps and particulate organic carbon export using 234 Th in the Barents Sea, Marine Chemistry, vol.80, pp.11-26, 2002.

D. R. Corbett, L. Kump, K. Dillon, W. Burnett, C. et al., Fate of wastewaterborne nutrients under low discharge conditions in the subsurface of the Florida Keys, USA, Marine Chemistry, vol.69, pp.99-115, 2000.

R. Courant, F. Lewy, and H. , On the partial difference equations of mathematical physics, IBM Journal of Research and Development, vol.11, pp.215-234, 1967.

A. M. Crotwell and W. S. Moore, Nutrient and radium fluxes from submarine groundwater discharge to Port Royal Sound, South Carolina, Aquatic Geochemistry, vol.9, pp.191-208, 2003.
DOI : 10.1023/b:aqua.0000022954.89019.c9

A. Decho, Microbial exopolymer secretions in ocean environments : their role(s) in food webs and marine processes., Oceanography and marine biology, vol.28, pp.73-153, 1990.

T. Devries and F. Primeau, Dynamically and observationally constrained estimates of water-mass distributions and ages in the global ocean, Journal of Physical Oceanography, vol.41, pp.2381-2401, 2011.

T. Devries, F. Primeau, and C. Deutsch, The sequestration efficiency of the biological pump, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.39, 2012.

K. S. Dillon, D. R. Corbett, J. P. Chanton, W. C. Burnett, and D. J. Furbish, The use of sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) as a tracer of septic tank effluent in Florida Keys, Journal of Hydrology, vol.220, pp.129-140, 1999.

M. Droop, Vitamin B12 and marine ecology. IV. The kinetics of uptake, growth and inhibition in Monochrysis lutheri, Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, vol.48, pp.689-733, 1968.
DOI : 10.1007/bf01609935

M. R. Droop, Some thoughts on nutrient limitation in algae, Journal of Phycology, vol.9, pp.264-272, 1973.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1529-8817.1973.tb04092.x

E. R. Druffel, P. M. Williams, J. E. Bauer, and J. R. Ertel, Cycling of dissolved and particulate organic matter in the open ocean, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.97, p.659, 1992.

R. C. Dugdale and J. J. Goering, Uptake of new and regenerated forms of nitrogen in primary production, Limnology and Oceanography, vol.12, pp.196-206, 1967.

H. Dulaiova, R. Peterson, W. C. Burnett, L. , and D. , A multi-detector continuous monitor for assessment of 222 Rn in the costal ocean, Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, vol.263, pp.361-365, 2005.

H. Dulaiova, M. V. Ardelan, P. B. Henderson, and M. A. Charette, Shelf-derived iron inputs drive biological productivity in the southern Drake Passage, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, vol.23, p.4014, 2009.

J. Dutay, F. Lacan, M. Roy-barman, and L. Bopp, Influence of particle size and type on 231 Pa and 230 Th simulation with a global coupled biogeochemical-ocean general circulation model : A first approach, Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, vol.10, 2009.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00399114

R. W. Eppley, Temperature and phytoplankton growth in the sea, Fishery Bulletin, vol.70, pp.1063-1085, 1972.

R. W. Eppley and B. J. Peterson, Particulate organic matter flux and plankton new production in the deep ocean, Nature, vol.282, pp.677-680, 1979.

M. J. Fasham, H. W. Ducklow, and S. M. Mckelvie, A nitrogen-based model of plankton dynamics in the oceanic mixed layer, Journal of Marine Research, vol.48, pp.591-639, 1990.

T. Fichefet and M. Maqueda, Sensitivity of a global sea ice model to the treatment of ice thermodynamics and dynamics, Journal of Geophysical Research : Oceans, vol.102, pp.609-621, 1997.

C. B. Field, M. J. Behrenfield, J. T. Randerson, and P. Falkowski, Primary production of the biosphere : integrating terrestrial and oceanic components, Science, vol.281, pp.237-240, 1998.

K. J. Flynn, The importance of the form of the quota curve and control of non-limiting nutrient transport in phytoplankton models, Journal of Plankton Research, vol.30, pp.423-438, 2008.

S. W. Fowler and G. A. Knauer, Role of large particles in the transport of elements and organic compounds through the oceanic water column, Progress in Oceanography, vol.16, issue.86, pp.90032-90039, 1986.

W. Geibert and R. Usbeck, Adosprtion of thorium and protactinium onto different particle types : Experimental findings, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol.68, pp.1489-1501, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.gca.2003.10.011

P. R. Gent and J. C. Mcwilliams, Isopycnal mixing in ocean circulation models, Journal of Physical Oceanography, vol.20, pp.150-155, 1990.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0485(1990)020<0150:imiocm>2.0.co;2

. Geosecs-operations-group, The GEOSECS Program : the objectives, the plan, the benefits, 1974.

C. R. German, A. P. Fleer, M. P. Bacon, E. , and J. M. , Hydrothermal scavenging at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge : radionuclide distributions, vol.105, pp.170-181, 1991.

M. Gloor, N. Gruber, T. M. Hughes, and J. L. Sarmiento, Estimating Net Airsea Fluxes from Ocean Bulk Data, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, vol.15, pp.767-782, 2001.
DOI : 10.1029/2000gb001301

URL : https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1029/2000GB001301

N. Gruber, M. Gloor, S. Fan, and J. L. Sarmiento, Air-sea flux of oxygen estimated from bulk data : Implications for the marine and atmospheric oxygen cycles, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, vol.15, pp.783-803, 2001.

L. Guo, M. Chen, G. , and C. , Control of Pa/Th ratio by particulate composition in the ocean, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.29, pp.221-224, 2002.

D. E. Hammond, R. A. Marton, W. M. Berelson, and T. Ku, Radium 228 distribution and mixing in San Nicolas and San Pedro basins, Southern California borderland, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.95, pp.3321-3335, 1990.
DOI : 10.1029/jc095ic03p03321

G. J. Hancock, I. T. Webster, P. W. Ford, M. , and W. S. , Using Ra isotopes to examine transport processes controlling benthic fluxes into a shallow estuarine lagoon, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol.64, pp.3685-3699, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/s0016-7037(00)00469-5

G. J. Hancock, I. T. Webster, and T. C. Stieglitz, Horizontal mixing of Great Barrier Reef waters : Offshore diffusivity determined from radium isotope distribution, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.111, pp.1-14, 2006.

C. Hanfland, Radium-226 and Radium-228 in the Atlantic Sector of the Southern Ocean, Berichte zur Polar-und Meeresforschung, vol.431, pp.1-135, 2002.

D. A. Hansell and C. A. Carlson, Net community production of dissolved organic carbon, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, vol.12, pp.443-453, 1998.
DOI : 10.1029/98gb01928

URL : https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1029/98GB01928

C. T. Hayes, R. F. Anderson, M. Q. Fleisher, S. M. Vivancos, P. J. Lam et al., Intensity of Th and Pa scavenging partitioned by particle chemistry in the North Atlantic Ocean, Marine Chemistry, vol.170, pp.49-60, 2015.

G. M. Henderson and R. F. Anderson, The U-series toolbox for paleoceanography, Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, vol.52, pp.493-531, 2003.
DOI : 10.2113/0520493

S. A. Henson, R. Sanders, E. Madsen, P. J. Morris, F. Le-moigne et al., A reduced estimate of the strength of the oceans biological carbon pump, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.38, pp.4-606, 2011.

S. A. Henson, A. Yool, S. , and R. , Variability in efficiency of partiiculate organic carbon export : A model Study, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, vol.29, pp.33-45, 2015.

B. D. Honeyman and P. H. Santschi, A Brownian-pumping model for oceanic trace metal scavenging : Evidence from Th and isotopes, Journal of Marine Research, vol.47, pp.951-992, 1989.
DOI : 10.1357/002224089785076091

B. D. Honeyman, L. S. Balistrieri, M. , and J. W. , Oceanic trace metal scavenging : the importance of particle concentration, Deep Sea Research Part I : Oceanographic Research Papers, vol.35, pp.227-246, 1988.

S. Honjo, S. J. Manganini, R. A. Krishfield, F. , and R. , Particulate organic carbon fluxes to the ocean interior and factors controlling the biological pump : A synthesis of global sediment trap programs since 1983, Progress in Oceanography, vol.76, pp.217-285, 2008.

Y. Hsieh, G. M. Henderson, T. , and A. L. , Combining seawater 232 Th and 230 Th concentrations to determine dust fluxes to the surface ocean, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.312, pp.280-290, 2011.

M. Huettel, W. Ziebis, and S. Forster, Flow-induced uptake of particulate matter in permeable sediments, Limnology and Oceanography, vol.41, pp.309-322, 1996.

C. Huh and T. Ku, A 2-D section of the 228 Ra and 226 Ra in the Northeast Pacific, Oceanologica Acta, vol.21, pp.533-542, 1998.

C. Hung, G. Gong, and P. H. Santschi, 234 Th in different size classes of sediment trap collected particles from the Northwestern Pacific Ocean, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol.91, pp.60-74, 2012.

D. Hwang, G. Kim, Y. Lee, Y. , and H. , Estimating submarine inputs of groundwater and nutrients to a coastal bay using radium isotopes, Marine Chemistry, vol.96, pp.61-71, 2005.

A. R. Jacobson, S. E. Fletcher, N. Gruber, J. L. Sarmiento, G. et al., A joint atmosphere-ocean inversion for surface fluxes of carbon dioxide : 1. Methods and global-scale fluxes, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, vol.21, p.1019, 2007.

S. H. Jacquet, P. J. Lam, T. Trull, D. , and F. , Carbon export production in the subantarctic zone and polar front zone south of Tasmania, Deep Sea Research Part II : Topical Studies in Oceanography, vol.58, pp.2277-2292, 2011.

A. D. Jassby and T. Platt, Mathematical formulation of the relationship between photosynthesis and light for phytoplankton, Limnology and Oceanography, vol.21, pp.540-547, 1976.

C. Jeandel, T. Arsouze, F. Lacan, P. Techine, and J. Dutay, Isotopic Nd compositions and concentrations of the lithogenic inputs into the ocean : A compilation, Chemical Geology, vol.239, pp.156-164, 2007.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00280191

W. J. Jenkins, Oxygen utilization rates in North Atlantic subtropical gyre and primary production in oligotrophic systems, Nature, vol.300, pp.246-248, 1982.

J. , Radionuclide thorium 234 and salinity measured on water bottle samples during Sagar Kanya cruise SK104, 2002.

J. , Thorium 234 measured on water bottle samples during Sagar Kanya cruise SK121, 2013.

J. , Thorium 234 measured on water bottle samples during Sagar Kanya cruise SK91, 2013.

J. , Thorium 234 measured on water bottle samples during Sagar Kanya cruise SK99, 2013.

D. Kadko and R. Muench, Evaluation of shelf-basin interaction in the western Arctic by use of short-lived radium isotopes : The importance of mesoscale processes, Deep Sea Research Part II : Topical Studies in Oceanography, vol.52, pp.3227-3244, 2005.

A. Kaufman, R. M. Trier, and W. S. Broecker, Distribution of 228 Ra in the World Ocean, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.78, pp.8827-8848, 1973.

H. Kawakami and M. C. Honda, Time-series observation of POC fluxes estimated from 234 Th in the northwestern North Pacific, Deep Sea Research Part I : Oceanographic Research Papers, vol.54, pp.1070-1090, 2007.

H. Kawakami and M. Kusakabe, Surface water mixing estimated from 228 Ra and 226 Ra in the northwestern North Pacific, Journal of Environmental R, vol.99, pp.1335-1340, 2008.

R. M. Key, R. F. Stallard, W. S. Moore, and J. L. Sarmiento, Distribution and flux of 226 Ra and 228 Ra in the Amazon River estuary, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.90, pp.6995-7004, 1985.

R. M. Key, A. Kozyr, C. L. Sabine, K. Lee, R. Wanninkhof et al., A global ocean carbon climatology : Results from Global Data Analysis Project (GLODAP), vol.18, p.4031, 2014.

G. Kim, J. Ryu, H. Yang, Y. , and S. , Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into the Yellow Sea revealed by 228 Ra and 226 Ra isotopes : Implications for global silicate fluxes, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.237, pp.156-166, 2005.

G. P. Klinkhammer and M. R. Palmer, Uranium in the oceans : Where it goes and why, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol.55, pp.1799-1806, 1991.

K. G. Knauss, T. Ku, M. , and W. S. , Radium and Thorium isotopes in the surface waters of the east Pacific and coastal Southern California, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.39, pp.235-249, 1978.

K. Knee and A. Paytan, Submarine Groundwater Discharge : A Source of Nutrients, Metals, and Pollutants to the Coastal Ocean, pp.206-228, 2011.

A. Koch-larrouy, A. Atmadipoera, P. Van-beek, G. Madec, J. Aucan et al., Estimates of tidal mixing in the Indonesian archipelago from multidisciplinary INDOMIX in-situ data, Deep Sea Research Part I : Oceanographic Research Papers, vol.106, pp.136-153, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01234066

F. Kohout, Submarine springs : a neglected phenomenon of coastal hydrology, US Department of the Interior Geological Survey, 1966.

F. A. Kohout, Ground-water flow and the geothermal regime of the Floridian Plateau, vol.17, pp.339-354, 1967.

J. M. Krest, W. S. Moore, and R. , Ra and 228 Ra in the mixing zones of the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers and indicators of groundwater input, Marine Chemistry, vol.64, pp.129-152, 1999.

T. Ku, S. Luo, M. Kusakabe, and J. K. Bishop, 228 Ra-derived nutrient budgets in the upper equatorial Pacific and the role of "new" silicate in limiting productivity, Deep Sea Research Part II : Topical Studies in Oceanography, vol.42, p.20, 1995.

E. Y. Kwon, G. Kim, F. Primeau, W. S. Moore, H. Cho et al., Global estimate of submarine groundwater discharge based on an observationally constrained radium isotope model, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.41, pp.8438-8444, 2014.

P. Lam, S. C. Doney, and J. K. Bishop, The dynamic ocean biological pump : Insights and from a global and compilation of particulate organic carbon and CaCO and opal concentration profiles from the mesopelagic, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, vol.25, p.3009, 2011.

P. J. Lam and O. Marchal, Insights into particle cycling from thorium and particle data, Annual review of marine science, vol.7, pp.159-184, 2015.

P. J. Lam, D. C. Ohnemus, and M. E. Auro, Size-fractionated major particle composition and concentrations from the US GEOTRACES North Atlantic Zonal Transect, Deep Sea Research Part II : Topical Studies in Oceanography, vol.116, pp.303-320, 2015.

R. S. Lampitt, B. Boorman, L. Brown, M. Lucas, I. Salter et al., Particle export from the euphotic zone : Estimates using a novel drifting sediment trap, 234 Th and new production, Deep Sea Research Part I : Oceanographic Research Papers, vol.55, pp.1484-1502, 2008.

J. Laroche, R. Nuzzi, R. Waters, K. Wyman, P. G. Falkowski et al., Brown tide blooms in Long Island's coastal waters linked to inter-annual variability in groundwater flow, Global Change Biology, vol.3, pp.397-410, 1997.

E. A. Laws, . Falkowski, G. Paul, W. O. Smith, H. Ducklow et al., Temperature effect on export production in the open ocean, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, vol.14, pp.1231-1246, 2000.

L. Gland, G. Mémery, L. Aumont, O. , R. et al., Improving the inverse modeling of a trace isotope : how precisely can radium-228 fluxes toward the ocean and submarine groundwater discharge be estimated ?, Biogeosciences, vol.14, pp.3171-3189, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01833170

F. A. Le-moigne, S. A. Henson, R. J. Sanders, and E. Madsen, Global database of surface ocean particulate organic carbon export fluxes diagnosed from the 234 Th technique, Earth System Science Data, vol.5, pp.295-304, 2013.

F. A. Le-moigne, M. Villa-alfageme, R. J. Sanders, C. Marsay, S. Henson et al., Export of organic carbon and biominerals derived from 234 Th and 210 Po at the Porcupine Abyssal Plain, Deep Sea Research Part I : Oceanographic Research Papers, vol.72, pp.88-101, 2013.

D. R. Lee, A device for measuring seepage flux in lakes and estuaries, Limnology and Oceanography, vol.22, pp.140-147, 1977.
DOI : 10.4319/lo.1977.22.1.0140

URL : http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4319/lo.1977.22.1.0140/pdf

H. Lee, G. Kim, J. Kim, G. Park, and K. Song, Tracing the flow rate and mixing ratio of the Changjiang diluted water in the northwestern Pacific marginal seas using radium isotopes, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.41, pp.4637-4645, 2014.

Y. Lee and G. Kim, Linking groundwater-borne nutrients and dinoflagellate red-tide outbreaks in the southern sea of Korea using a Ra tracer, Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, vol.71, pp.309-317, 2007.

P. Lerner, O. Marchal, P. J. Lam, R. F. Anderson, K. Buesseler et al., Testing models of thorium and particle cycling in the ocean using data from station GT11-22 of the U.S. GEOTRACES North Atlantic section, Deep Sea Research Part I : Oceanographic Research Papers, vol.113, pp.57-79, 2016.

P. Lerner, O. Marchal, P. J. Lam, K. Buesseler, and M. Charette, Kinetics of thorium and particle cycling along the U.S. GEOTRACES North Atlantic Transect, Deep Sea Research Part I : Oceanographic Research Papers, vol.125, pp.106-128, 2017.
DOI : 10.1016/j.dsr.2017.05.003

URL : http://darchive.mblwhoilibrary.org/bitstream/1912/9144/1/Lerner_peerreviewedmanuscript2017.pdf

M. Lévy, M. Gavart, L. Mémery, G. Caniaux, P. et al., A four-dimensional mesoscale map of the spring bloom in the northeast Atlantic (POMME experiment) : Results of a prognostic model, Journal of Geophysical Research : Oceans, vol.110, 2005.

M. Lévy, A. Krémeur, and L. Mémery, Description of the LOBSTER biogeochemical model implemented in the OPA system, Internal report IPSL/LOCEAN, 2005.

Y. Li, G. Mathieu, P. Biscaye, and H. J. Simpson, The flux of 226 Ra from estuarine and continental shelf sediments, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.37, pp.90168-90174, 1977.
DOI : 10.1016/0012-821x(77)90168-6

P. Lin, M. Chen, G. , and L. , Effect of natural organic matter on the adsorption and fractionation of thorium and protactinium on nanoparticles in seawater, Marine Chemistry, vol.173, pp.291-301, 2015.

Q. Liu, M. Dai, W. Chen, C. Huh, G. Wang et al., How significant is submarine groundwater discharge and its associated dissolved inorganic carbon in a river-dominated shelf system ?, Biogeosciences, vol.9, pp.1777-1795, 1777.
DOI : 10.5194/bg-9-1777-2012

URL : http://doi.org/10.5194/bg-9-1777-2012

A. M. Loveless, C. E. Oldham, and G. J. Hancock, Radium isotopes reveal seasonal groundwater inputs to Cockburn Sound, a marine embayment in Western Australia, Journal of Hydrology, vol.351, pp.203-217, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2007.12.010

S. Luo and T. Ku, Ocean importance of opal, carbon, and lithogenic clays in scavenging and fractionating 230 Th, 231 Pa, 10 Be in the ocean, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.220, pp.201-211, 2004.

S. Luo, T. Ku, M. Kusakabe, J. K. Bishop, Y. et al., Tracing particle cycling in the upper ocean with 230 Th and 228 Th : An investigation in the equatorial Pacific along 140W, Deep Sea Research Part II : Topical Studies in Oceanography, vol.42, pp.805-829, 1995.

A. Mackenzie, Thorium 234 measured on water bottle samples from the upper 100 m, 2000.

R. Mackintosh, J. Al-khalili, B. Jonson, and T. Peña, Nucleus : A trip into the heart of matter, chap. The nuclear landscape, pp.70-82, 2011.

G. Madec, , vol.27, pp.1288-1619, 2015.

G. Madec and M. Imbard, A global ocean mesh to overover the North Pole singularity, Climate Dynamics, vol.12, pp.381-388, 1996.

G. Madec, P. Delecluse, M. Imbard, and C. Lévy, OPA 8.1 Ocean General Circulation Model Reference Manual, 1998.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00154217

N. Mahowald, S. Albani, J. F. Folk, S. Engelstaeder, R. Scanza et al., The size distribution of desert dust aerosols and its impact on the Earth system, Aeolian research, vol.15, pp.53-71, 2014.

N. M. Mahowald, A. R. Baker, G. Bergametti, N. Brooks, R. A. Duce et al., Atmospheric global dust cycle and iron inputs to the ocean, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, vol.19, pp.1-15, 2005.
DOI : 10.1029/2004gb002402

URL : http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2004GB002402/pdf

E. Maier-reimer, Geochemical cycles in an ocean general circulation model. Preindustrial tracer distributions, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, vol.7, pp.645-677, 1993.
DOI : 10.1029/93gb01355

O. Marchal and P. J. Lam, What can paired measurements of Th isotope activity and particle concentration tell us about particle cycling in the ocean ?, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol.90, pp.126-148, 2012.

O. Marchal, R. François, T. F. Stocker, J. , and F. , Ocean thermohaline circulation and sedimentary 231 Pa/ 230 Th ratio, Paleoceanography, vol.15, pp.625-641, 2000.

J. H. Martin and S. A. Fitzwater, Iron deficiency limits phytoplankton growth in the north-east Pacific subarctic, Nature, vol.331, pp.341-343, 1988.
DOI : 10.1038/331341a0

J. H. Martin, G. A. Knauer, D. M. Karl, and W. W. Broenkow, VERTEX : carbon cycling in the northeast Pacific, Deep Sea Research Part I : Oceanographic Research Papers, vol.34, pp.267-285, 1987.
DOI : 10.1016/0198-0149(87)90086-0

P. Martin, R. S. Lampitt, M. J. Perry, R. Sanders, C. Lee et al., Export and mesopelagic particle flux during a North Atlantic spring diatom bloom, Deep Sea Research Part I : Oceanographic Research Papers, vol.58, pp.338-349, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.dsr.2011.01.006

Y. Masumoto, H. Sasaki, T. Kagimoto, N. Komori, A. Ishida et al., A fifty-year eddy-resolving simulation of the world ocean-preliminary outcomes of OFEs (OGCM for the Earth simulator), Journal of the Earth simulator, vol.1, pp.35-56, 2004.

E. Matsumoto, 234 Th-238 U radioactive disequilibrium in the surface layer of the ocean, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol.39, pp.205-212, 1975.

E. E. Mawji, The GEOTRACES Intermediate Data Product, Marine Chemistry, vol.177, pp.1-8, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.marchem.2015.04.005

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01491331

J. Mccarthy, The kinetics of nutrient utilization, Canadian Bulletin of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, pp.211-233, 1981.

I. N. Mccave, Vertical flux of particles in the ocean, Deep Sea Research and Oceanographic Abstracts, vol.22, pp.491-502, 1975.

J. C. Mcwilliams, Submesoscale current in the ocean, Proceedings of the Royal Society A, vol.472, 2016.

F. Mesinger and A. Arakawa, Numerical methods used in atmospheric models, World Meteorological Organization, International Council of Scientific Unions, 1976.

M. Fletcher, S. E. Gruber, N. Jacobson, A. R. Doney, S. C. Dutkiewicz et al., Inverse estimates of anthropogenic CO 2 uptake, transport, and storage by the ocean, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, vol.20, 2006.

J. Milliman, Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences, chap. River Inputs, pp.2419-2427, 2001.

L. Mémery and C. Wunsch, Constraining the North Atlantic circulation with tritium data, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.95, pp.5239-5256, 1990.

J. Monod, Recherches sur la croissance des cultures bacteriennes, 1942.

J. Monod, The growth of bacterial cultures, Annual Reviews in Microbiology, vol.3, pp.371-395, 1949.

W. S. Moore, Oceanic concentrations of 228 radium, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.6, pp.437-446, 1969.

W. S. Moore, Radium Isotopes in the Chesapeake Bay, Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, vol.12, pp.713-723, 1981.

W. S. Moore, Radium 228 in the South and Atlantic Bight, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.92, pp.5177-5190, 1987.

W. S. Moore, Large groundwater inputs to coastal waters revealed by 226 Ra enrichments, Nature, vol.380, pp.612-614, 1996.
DOI : 10.1038/380612a0

W. S. Moore, High fluxes of radium and barium from the mouth of the GangesBrahmaputra River during low river discharge suggest a large groundwater source, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.150, pp.83-89, 1997.

W. S. Moore, Determining coastal mixing rates using radium isotopes, Continental Shelf Research, vol.20, 1993.
DOI : 10.1016/s0278-4343(00)00054-6

W. S. Moore, Ages of continental shelf waters determined from 223 Ra and 224 Ra, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.105, pp.117-122, 2000.

W. S. Moore, Radium isotopes as tracers of submarine groundwater discharge in Sicily, Continental Shelf Research, vol.26, pp.852-861, 2006.

W. S. Moore, Seasonal distribution and flux of radium isotopes on the southeastern, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.112, 2007.

W. S. Moore, The Effect of Submarine Groundwater Discharge on the Ocean, Annu. Rev. Marine. Sci, vol.2, pp.59-88, 2010.

W. S. Moore, A reevaluation of submarine groundwater discharge along the southeastern coast of North America, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, vol.24, p.4005, 2010.

W. S. Moore, Inappropriate attempts to use distributions of 228 Ra and 226 Ra in coastal waters to model mixing and advection rates, Continental Shelf Research, vol.105, pp.95-100, 2015.

W. S. Moore and J. De-oliveira, Determination of residence time and mixing processes of the Ubatuba, Brazil, inner shelf waters using natural Ra isotopes, Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, vol.76, pp.512-521, 2008.

W. S. Moore and J. Dymond, Fluxes of 226 Ra and barium in the Pacific Ocean : The importance of boundary processes, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.107, pp.55-68, 1991.

W. S. Moore and T. J. Shaw, Chemical signals from submarine fluid advection onto the continental shelf, Journal of Geophysical Research : Oceans, vol.103, pp.543-564, 1998.

W. S. Moore and T. J. Shaw, Fluxes and behavior of radium isotopes, barium, and uranium in seven Southeastern US rivers and estuaries, Marine Chemistry, vol.108, pp.236-254, 2008.

W. S. Moore and J. F. Todd, Radium Isotopes in the Orinoco Estuary and the Eastern Caribbean Sea, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.98, pp.2233-2244, 1993.

W. S. Moore, H. Astwood, and C. Lindstrom, Radium isotopes in coastal waters on the Amazon shelf, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol.59, issue.95, p.242, 1995.

W. S. Moore, J. L. Sarmiento, and R. M. Key, Submarine groundwater discharge revealed by 228 Ra distribution in the upper Atlantic Ocean, Nature Geosci, vol.1, pp.309-311, 2008.

S. B. Moran, S. E. Weinstein, H. N. Edmonds, J. N. Smith, R. P. Kelly et al., Does 234 Th/ 238 U and disequilibrium provide an accurate record of the export flux of and particulate organic carbon from the upper ocean, Limnology and Oceanography, vol.48, pp.1018-1029, 2003.

S. B. Moran, M. W. Lomas, R. P. Kelly, R. Gradinger, K. Iken et al., Seasonal succession of net primary productivity, particulate organic carbon export, and autotrophic community composition in the eastern Bering Sea, Deep Sea Research Part II : Topical Studies in Oceanography, vol.65, pp.84-97, 2012.

F. M. Morel and N. M. Price, The Biogeochemical Cycles of Trace Metals in the Oceans, vol.300, pp.944-947, 2003.

P. J. Morris, R. Sanders, R. Turnewitsch, and S. Thomalla, 234 Th-derived particulate organic carbon export from an island-induced phytoplankton bloom in the Southern Ocean, Deep-Sea Research II, vol.54, pp.2208-2232, 2007.

R. J. Murnane, J. K. Cochran, and J. L. Sarmiento, Estimates of particle-and thoriumcycling rates in the northwest Atlantic Ocean, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.99, pp.3373-3392, 1994.

J. W. Murray, J. N. Downs, S. Strom, C. Wei, J. et al., Nutrient assimilation, export production and 234 Th scavenging in the eastern equatorial Pacific, Deep Sea Research Part I : Oceanographic Research Papers, vol.36, pp.90052-90058, 1989.

J. C. Neess, R. C. Dugdale, V. A. Dugdale, and J. J. Goering, Nitrogen metabolism in lakes. I. Measurements of nitrogen fixation with N 15, Limnology and Oceanography, vol.7, pp.163-169, 1962.

D. Nicholson, R. H. Stanley, and S. C. Doney, The triple oxygen isotope tracer of primary productivity in a dynamic ocean model, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, vol.28, pp.538-552, 2014.

Y. Nozaki and Y. Yamamoto, Radium 228 based nitrate fluxes in the easeast Indian Ocean and the South China Sea and a silicon-induced "alkalinity pump" hypothesis, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, vol.15, pp.555-567, 2001.

Y. Nozaki, V. Kasemsupaya, and H. Tsubota, The distribution of 228 Ra and 226 Ra in the surface waters of the northern North Pacific, Geochemical Journal, vol.24, pp.1-6, 1990.

Y. Nozaki, F. Dobashi, Y. Kato, Y. , and Y. , Distribution of Ra and isotopes and the 210 Pb and 210 Po balance in surface seawaters of the mid Northern Hemisphere, Deep Sea Research Part I : Oceanographic Research Papers, vol.45, pp.16-24, 1998.

T. Okubo, Radium-228 in the Japan Sea, Journal of the Oceanographical Society of Japan, vol.36, pp.263-268, 1980.

J. C. Orr, E. Maier-reimer, U. Mikolajewicz, P. Monfray, J. L. Sarmiento et al., Estimates of anthropogenic carbon uptake from four three-dimensional global ocean models, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, vol.15, pp.43-60, 2001.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00153888

S. A. Owens, S. Pike, and K. O. Buesseler, Thorium-234 as a tracer of particle dynamics and upper ocean export in the Atlantic Ocean, Deep Sea Research Part II : Topical Studies in Oceanography, vol.116, pp.42-59, 2014.

U. Passow, Transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) in aquatic environments, Progress in Oceanography, vol.55, pp.287-333, 2002.

R. J. Paulsen, C. F. Smith, D. O&apos;rourke, and T. Wong, Development and evaluation of an ultrasonic ground water seepage meter, Groundwater, vol.39, pp.904-911, 2001.

F. Planchon, A. Cavagna, L. André, D. , and F. , Late summer particulate organic carbon export and twilight zone remineralisation in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean, Biogeosciences, vol.10, pp.803-820, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01138246

P. Prunet and J. Minster, Assimilation of surface data in a one-dimensional physicalbiogeochemical model of the surface ocean 1. Method and preliminary results, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, vol.10, pp.111-138, 1996.

M. S. Quigley, P. H. Santschi, H. , and C. , Importance of acid polysaccharides for 234 Th complexation to marine organic matter, Limnology and Oceanography, vol.47, pp.367-377, 2002.

M. Rama and W. S. , Using the radium quartet for evalutaing groundwater input and water exchange in salt marshes, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol.60, pp.4645-4652, 1996.

L. L. Rasmussen, Radium isotopes as tracers of coastal circulation oathways in the MidAtlantic Bight, 2003.

A. C. Redfield, On the proportions of organic derivatives in sea water and their relation to the composition of plankton, pp.177-192, 1934.

M. H. Redi, Oceanic isopycnal mixing by coordinate rotation, Journal of Physical Oceanography, vol.12, pp.1154-1158, 1982.

D. F. Reid and W. M. Sackett, Radium in the near-surface Caribbean Sea, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.60, pp.17-26, 1982.

R. Rengarajan, M. M. Sarin, B. L. Somayajulu, and R. Sushani, Mixing in the surface waters of the western Bay of Bengal using 228 Ra and 226 Ra, Journal of Marine Research, vol.60, pp.255-279, 2002.

L. Resplandy, A. P. Martin, F. Le-moigne, P. Martin, A. Aquilina et al., How does dynamical spatial variability impact 234 Th-derived estimates of organic export, Deep Sea Research Part I : Oceanographic Research Papers, vol.68, pp.24-45, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00766637

L. Resplandy, R. F. Keeling, B. B. Stephens, J. D. Bent, A. Jacobson et al., Constraints on oceanic meridional heat transport from combined measurements of oxygen and carbon, Climate Dynamics, vol.47, pp.3335-3357, 2016.

T. L. Richardson and G. A. Jackson, Small phytoplankton and carbon export from the surface ocean, Science, vol.315, pp.838-840, 2007.

G. Riley, Factors controlling phytoplankton populations on Georges Bank, Journal of Marine Research, vol.6, pp.54-73, 1946.

G. Riley, A mathematical model of regional variations in plankton, Limnology and Oceanography, vol.10, pp.202-215, 1965.

A. J. Robert, The integration of a low order spectral form of the primitive meteorological equations, Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan, vol.44, pp.237-244, 1966.

M. Roca-martí, V. Puigcorbé, M. M. Rutgers-van-der-loeff, C. Katlein, M. Fernándezméndez et al., Carbon export fluxes and export efficiency in the central Arctic during the record sea-ice minimum in 2012 : a joint 234 Th/ 238 U and 210 Po/ 210 Pb study, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.121, pp.5030-5049, 2016.

M. Roca-martí, V. Puigcorbé, M. H. Iversen, M. Rutgers-van-der-loeff, C. Klaas et al., High particulate organic carbon export during the decline of a vast diatom bloom in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean, Deep Sea Research Part II : Topical Studies in Oceanography, vol.138, pp.102-115, 2017.

V. Rodellas, J. Garcia-orellana, P. Masqué, M. Feldman, and Y. Weinstein, Submarine groundwater discharge as a major source of nutrients to the Mediterranean Sea, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol.112, pp.3926-3930, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01818173

A. M. Rodriguez-y-baena, R. Boudjenoun, S. W. Fowler, J. C. Miquel, P. Masqué et al., 234 Th-based carbon export during an ice-edge bloom : Sea-ice algae as a likely bias in data interpretation, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.269, pp.595-603, 2008.

M. Roy-barman, C. Jeandel, M. Souhaut, M. Rutgers-van-der-loeff, I. Voege et al., The influence of particle composition on thorium scavenging in the NE Atlantic ocean (POMME experiment), Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.240, pp.681-693, 2005.

R. Van-der-loeff, M. Kühne, S. Wahsner, M. Höltzen, H. Frank et al., 228 Ra and 226 Ra in the Kara and Laptev seas, Continental Shelf Research, vol.23, pp.113-124, 2003.

R. Van-der-loeff, M. Cai, P. H. Stimac, I. Bracher, A. Middag et al., Th in surface waters : Distribution of particle export flux across the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and in the Weddell Sea during the GEOTRACES expedition ZERO and DRAKE, Deep-Sea Research II, vol.58, pp.2749-2766, 2011.

R. Van-der-loeff, M. Cai, P. Stimac, I. Bauch, D. Hanfland et al., Shelf-basin exchange times of Arctic surface waters estimated from BIBLIOGRAPHIE

, Th/ 228 Ra disequilibrium, Journal of Geophysical Research : Oceans, vol.117, 2012.

R. Van-der-loeff and M. M. , Manual determination of Thorium 234 and Uranium 238 during cruise ANT-XXIII/3, 2007.

R. Van-der-loeff, M. M. Key, R. M. Scholten, J. Bauch, D. et al., 228 Ra as a tracer for shelf water in the Arctic Ocean, Deep-Sea Research II, vol.42, pp.1533-1553, 1995.

R. Sanders, L. Brown, S. Henson, L. , and M. , New production in the Irminger Basin during, Journal of Marine Systems, vol.55, pp.291-310, 2002.

R. Sanders, S. A. Henson, M. Koski, C. De-la-rocha, S. C. Painter et al., The biological carbon pump in the North Atlantic, vol.129, pp.200-218, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01102946

V. Sanial, EtudeséchangesEtudeséchanges côte-large au moyen des isotopes du radium : cas de la fertilisation en fer au large des??lesdes?des??les Crozet et Kerguelen (Océan Austral), 2015.

V. Sanial, P. Van-beek, B. Lansard, F. Ovidio, E. Kestenare et al., Study of the phytoplankton plume dynamics off the Crozet Islands (Southern Ocean) : A geochemical-physical coupled approach, Journal of Geophysical Research : Oceans, vol.119, pp.2227-2237, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01009306

V. Sanial, P. Van-beek, B. Lansard, M. Souhaut, E. Kestenare et al., Use of Ra isotopes to deduce rapid transfer of sediment-derived inputs off Kerguelen, Biogeosciences, vol.12, pp.1415-1430, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01207727

P. H. Santschi, Y. Li, and J. Bell, Natural radionuclides in the water of Narragansett Bay, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.45, pp.90121-90124, 1979.

P. H. Santschi, L. Guo, I. D. Walsh, M. S. Quigley, and M. Baskaran, Boundary exchange and scavenging of radionuclides in continental margin waters of the Middle Atlantic Bight : implications for organic carbon fluxes, vol.19, pp.609-636, 1999.

P. H. Santschi, J. W. Murray, M. Baskaran, C. R. Benitez-nelson, L. D. Guo et al., Thorium speciation in seawater, Marine Chemistry, vol.100, pp.250-268, 2006.

N. Savoye, C. Benitez-nelson, A. B. Burd, J. K. Cochran, M. Charette et al., 234 Th sorption and export models in the water column : a review, Marine Chemistry, vol.100, pp.234-249, 2006.

C. Schmidt, C. Hanfland, P. Regnier, P. Van-cappellen, M. Schlüter et al., 228 Ra, 226 Ra, 224 Ra and 223 Ra in potential sources and sinks of land-derived material in the German Bight of the North Sea : implications for the use of radium as a tracer, Geo-Marine Letters, vol.31, pp.259-269, 2011.

A. Schmittner, E. J. Brook, A. , and J. , Ocean Circulation : Mechanisms and Impacts-Past and Future Changes of Meridional Overturning, chap. Impact of the ocean's overturning circulation on atmospheric CO 2, pp.315-334, 2007.

J. C. Scholten, J. Fietzke, S. Vogler, M. M. Rutgers-van-der-loeff, A. Mangini et al., Trapping efficiencies of sediment traps from the deep Eastern North Atlantic : the 230 Th calibration, Deep Sea Research Part II : Topical Studies in Oceanography, vol.48, pp.2383-2408, 2001.

. Scor-working-group, SCOR Working Group : GEOTRACES-An international study of the global marine biogeochemical cycles of trace elements and their isotopes, GEOTRACES Science Plan, vol.67, pp.85-131, 2006.

A. J. Semtner and R. M. Chervin, Ocean general circulation from a global eddy-resolving model, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.97, pp.5493-5550, 1992.

G. B. Shimmield, G. D. Ritchie, and T. W. Fileman, The impact of marginal ice zone processes on the distribution of 210 Pb, 210 Po and 234 Th and implications for new production in the Bellingshausen Sea, Deep Sea Research Part II : Topical Studies in Oceanography, vol.42, pp.1313-1335, 1995.

E. Sholkovitz, C. Herbold, and M. Charette, An automated dye-dilution based seepage meter for the time-series measurement of submarine groundwater discharge, Limnology and Oceanography : Methods, vol.1, pp.16-28, 2003.

C. Siberlin and C. Wunsch, Oceanic tracer and proxy time scales revisited, Clim. Past, vol.7, pp.27-39, 2011.

J. Smith, S. Moran, and R. Macdonald, Shelf-basin interactions in the Arctic Ocean based on 210 Pb and Ra isotope tracer distributions, Deep Sea Research Part I : Oceanographic Research Papers, vol.50, pp.397-416, 2003.

J. M. Smoak, C. J. Sanders, S. R. Patchineelam, M. , and W. S. , Radium mass balance and submarine groundwater discharge in Sepetiba Bay, Journal of South American Earth Sciences, vol.39, pp.44-51, 2012.

J. H. Steele, Plant production in the northern North Sea, 1958.

E. Steemann-nielsen, The use of radioactive carbon ( 14 C) for measuring organic production in the sea, Journal de Conseil, vol.18, pp.117-140, 1952.

T. F. Stocker, D. Qin, G. Plattner, M. Tignor, S. K. Allen et al., , 2013.

N. Su, J. Du, Y. Li, and J. Zhang, Evaluation of surface water mixing and associated nutrient fluxes in the East China Sea using 226 Ra and 228 Ra, Marine Chemistry, vol.156, pp.108-119, 2013.

M. Taniguchi and Y. Fukuo, Continuous measurements of ground-water seepage using an automatic seepage meter, Groundwater, vol.31, pp.675-679, 1993.

M. Taniguchi and H. Iwakawa, Measurements of submarine groundwater discharge rates by a continuous heat-type automated seepage meter in Osaka Bay, Journal of Groundwater Hydrology, vol.43, pp.271-277, 2001.

M. Taniguchi, W. C. Burnett, J. E. Cable, and J. V. Turner, Investigation of submarine groundwater discharge, Hydrological Processes, vol.16, pp.2115-2129, 2002.

M. Taniguchi, T. Ishitobi, W. C. Burnettt, and J. Shimida, A New Focus on Groundwater-Seawater Interactions, chap. Comprehensive evaluation of the groundwater-seawater interface and submarine groundwater discharge, pp.86-92, 2007.

M. Taniguchi, T. Ishitobi, and W. C. Burnett, From Headwaters to the Ocean : Hydrological Change and Watershed Management, chap. Global assessment of submarine groundwater discharge, pp.613-617, 2009.

S. Thomalla, R. Turnewitsch, M. Lucas, P. , and A. , Particulate organic carbon export from the North and South Atlantic gyres : The 234 Th/ 238 U disequilibrium approach, Deep-Sea Research II, vol.53, pp.1629-1648, 2006.

J. R. Toggweiler, A. Gnanadesikan, C. , and S. , Representation of the carbon cycle in box models and GCMs : 1. Solubility pump, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, vol.17, 2003.

T. Tyrrell, The relative influence of nitrogen and phosphorus on oceanic primary production, Nature, vol.400, pp.525-531, 1999.

T. Tyrrell and C. S. Law, Low nitrate : phosphate ratios in the global ocean, Nature, vol.393, pp.793-796, 1997.

P. Van-beek, R. François, M. Conte, J. Reyss, M. Souhaut et al., 228 Ra/ 226 Ra and 226 Ra/Ba ratios to track barite formation and transport in the water column, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol.71, pp.71-86, 2007.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00403639

P. Van-beek, M. Bourquin, J. Reyss, M. Souhaut, M. Charette et al., Radium isotopes to investigate the water mass pathways on the Kerguelen Plateau (Southern Ocean, vol.55, pp.622-637, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00280201

P. Van-beek, E. Sternberg, J. Reyss, M. Souhaut, E. Robin et al., 228 Ra/ 226 Ra and 226 Ra/Ba ratios in the Western Mediterranean Sea : barite formation and transport in the water column, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol.73, pp.4720-4737, 2009.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00404768

M. M. Van-hulten, A. Sterl, A. Tagliabue, J. Dutay, M. Gehlen et al., Aluminium in an ocean general circulation model compared with the West Atlantic Geotraces cruises, Journal of Marine Systems, vol.126, pp.3-23, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/cea-00917283

M. Vancoppenolle, T. Fichefet, H. Goosse, S. Bouillon, G. Madec et al., Simulating the mass balance and salinity of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice. 1. Model description and validation, Ocean Modelling, vol.27, pp.33-53, 2009.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01406240

T. Volk and M. I. Hoffert, Ocean Carbon Pumps : Analysis of Relative Strengths and Efficiencies in Ocean-Driven Atmospheric CO2 Changes, pp.99-110, 1985.

M. Voss, H. W. Bange, J. W. Dippner, J. J. Middleburg, J. P. Montoya et al., The marine nitrogen cycle : recent discoveries, uncertainties and the potential relevance of climate change, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B : Biological Sciences, vol.368, 2013.

F. P. Wilkerson, R. C. Dugdale, and R. T. Barber, Effect of El Niño on new, regenerated, and total production in eastern boundary upwelling systems, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.92, pp.347-361, 1987.

A. M. Wilson, The occurence and chemical implications of geothermal convection of seawater in continental shelves, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.30, p.2127, 2003.

J. Wohlers, A. Engel, E. Zöllner, P. Breithaupt, K. Jürgens et al., Change in biogenic carbon flow in response to sea surface warming, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol.106, pp.7067-7072, 2009.

C. Wunsch, Discrete inverse and state estimation problems, 2006.

M. Yamada and Y. Nozaki, Radium isotopes in coastal and open ocean surface waters of the Western North Pacific, Marine Chemistry, vol.19, issue.86, pp.90057-90062, 1986.

W. Yang and R. Zhang, Influence of partice composition on thorium scavenging in the marginal China seas, Acta Oceanologica Sinica, vol.28, pp.45-53, 2009.

J. C. Yeh and Y. C. Chung, Ra and 226 Ra distributions off north and southwest Taiwan, Terrestrial, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, vol.8, p.141, 1997.

A. Yool, A. Martin, C. Fernandez, C. , and D. , The significance of nitrification for ocean production, Nature, vol.447, pp.999-1002, 2007.

J. Young and J. W. Murray, Isotope activity measured on Go-Flo bottle samples at station TT007 15-GoFlo, 2003.

E. Yu, R. Francois, and M. P. Bacon, Similar rates of modern and last-glacial ocean thermohaline circulation inferred from radiochemical data, Nature, vol.379, pp.689-694, 1996.

Y. Zhong, A. Bracco, J. Tian, J. Dong, W. Zhao et al., Observed and simulated submesoscale vertical pump of an anticyclonic eddy in the South China Sea, Scientific Reports, vol.7, p.11, 2017.

K. Zhou, S. D. Nodder, M. Dai, and J. A. Hall, Insignificant enhancement of export flux in the highly productive subtropical front, east of New Zealand : a high resolution study of particle export fluxes based on 234 Th : 238 U disequilibria, Biogeosciences, vol.9, pp.973-992, 2012.