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Variabilité spatio-temporelle de la composition des fluides hydrothermaux (observatoire fond de mer EMSO-Açores, Lucky Strike) : traçage de la circulation hydrothermale et quantification des flux chimiques associés

Abstract : This thesis present a detailed study of the composition of high temperature fluid from the Lucky Strike hydrothermal field (37°N, Mid Ocean Ridge) collected during three sampling campaigns within the framework of the deep sea observatory EMSO-Azores. The hydrothermal field has developped around a fossil lava lake framed by three ancient volcanic cones. In 2013, the discovery of a new active site to the East of the system, and presenting an unprecedented fluid composition at Lucky Strike (low Cl concentration and high Fe and Mn concentration), lead to a new model of hydrothermal circulation based on chemical geothermobarometer (Si; Si-Cl) and geothermometer (Fe-Mn) applied to 13 venting sites. We defined 5 groups of sites based on their chlorinity and location around the lava lake. It appears that vapor-dominated Capelinhos fluids were extracted relatively fast from the phase separation zone (estimated at ~2600mbsf). Nevertheless, fluids in the vicinity of the lava lake, both vapor and brine dominated, display P and T conditions of equilibration lower than for Capelinhos fluids. This highlights on-going equilibration process through conductive cooling and/or brine entrainment in the upflow zone up to the layer 2A of the oceanic crust. Chlorinity variations highlight the varying residence time in the upflow of the fluids between vents which depends on physical characteristics of the crust. We studied the temporal variability of fluid composition collected between 2009 and 2015. Two time scales have been evidenced. The first is the sampling scale, i.e. ~1h, and corresponds to subsurface processes indicating that a hydrothermal fluid, conductively cooled (T<150°C), was stored in the porous substratum close to the discharge. The second is at the scale of the year. It shows fluctuations of P and T conditions in the phase separation and different degree of alteration of the substratum in the reaction zone. Intersites variations of Ca/Na ratios (proxies for albitisation) are related to phase separation expected the South Eastern sites that display a more altered substratum. To avoid this issue, we use Li and Sr isotopes which are not affected phase separation. Li concentration and isotopic composition indicates that basalt substratum is relatively fresh with W/R ratio close to 1 calculated for all groups with d7Li of fluid equivalent to substratum. Sr concentration and isotopic composition suggest higher W/R ratio (~7-8) because of seawater Sr partially removed in the recharge. Moreover, other parameters are at play such as secondary mineral formation (albite, anhydrite) during water rock interaction in the greenschist facies. Because the basalt is relatively fresh, the low metal content in the fluid around the lava lake is due to storage, in the subsurface, of approximately ~60-70% of Fe that is mobilized in the reaction zone compared to Fe-Mn rich Capelinhos fluids. Furthermore, the Cl variability from the fluids at Lucky Strike brings a unique opportunity to study the REE distribution from the reaction zone to the discharge into the deep ocean. We show that the LREE are preferentially concentrated into the brine phase. Furthermore, the Eu is linked to the Sr geochemical cycle. Dissolved REE from buoyant plume fluids highlight a scavenging effect. The Nd isotopic compositions indicate redissolution process. This Nd isotopes modification of the deep seawater is similar to the process of "boundary exchange" that occurs at the ocean/continents interface. Considering the global distribution of submarine hydrothermalism, the Nd modification at the ridge could have an impact on the global Nd cycle in the oceans and act as a "ridge exchange".
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Thomas Leleu. Variabilité spatio-temporelle de la composition des fluides hydrothermaux (observatoire fond de mer EMSO-Açores, Lucky Strike) : traçage de la circulation hydrothermale et quantification des flux chimiques associés. Sciences de la Terre. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017TOU30023⟩. ⟨tel-01874701⟩

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