Etude rétrospective des signes précoces des troubles du spectre de l'autisme chez les très jeunes enfants déficients visuels

Abstract : Previous research ans clinical observations suggest a high incidence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in visually impaired children. A phenomena of developmental regression or stagnation « developmental setback » observed in the second year of life of visually impaired babies appears to predict the later occurrence of ASD. Relatively little research has explored the behavioural manifestations of very young visually impaired children before and around the apparition of developmental setback. For this retrospective study, home movies of blind children at the age of 12 months, 24 months and between 3 and 4 years, are analysed and behaviours of social communication are coded, to detect early signs of ASD. Films of blind children having later recieved a diagnosis of ASD are compared to films of blind children without ASD. The results indicate a lower frequency of certain social communication behaviours in blind children with ASD as early as 12 months old, with particular differences being observed in social engagement behaviours. Differences are also observed in the level of functional language from 24 months. Motor and language stereotyped behaviours are observed equally in the two groups until the age of 3 when these behaviours increase in the blind ASD children and decrease in the blind children without ASD. Divergences in the type of play are identified, sensory play being more frequent in the blind ASD children. Certain social rejection behaviours and sensory sensitivities are only observed in the blind ASD group. The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of early ASD signs in the blind, and improvements in the early screening of ASD in very young visually impaired children, as well as guiding early intervention programmes.
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Laura Still. Etude rétrospective des signes précoces des troubles du spectre de l'autisme chez les très jeunes enfants déficients visuels. Psychologie. Université de Lyon, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LYSE2071⟩. ⟨tel-01874681⟩

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