Caractérisation et développement d'un procédé de gravure séquentiel contrôlé à l'échelle nanométrique

Abstract : The miniaturization of microelectronics devices requires the development of ever more accurate etching processes. The subject of this thesis is part of this problematic: a controlled sequential etching process at the nanoscale has been developed to overcome the inherent defects of direct plasma etching. This etching process intended in our case for the etching for SiN spacers, is divided in two steps. The first step is a light atom implantation. The implantation of light chemical species such as Hydrogen or Helium has the advantage of modifying the structure of the material without inducing a damaging sputtering for the device to be etched. In the second step, the layer modified by the implantation is etched selectively regarding the pristine material via a remote plasma.Hydrogen implantation was mainly studied during this work: different characterizations to quantify the implanted hydrogen as well as the modified thickness were carried out. X-ray reflectometry measurements were used to determine the modified thickness as a function of the self-polarization power and the duration of implantation. Hydrogen implant profiles on SiN were also carried out through electrical characterizations. The charge density profiles observed were compared to Si-H and N-H bond profiles obtained from infrared spectroscopic measurements in multiple reflections. These measurements were also compared to secondary ionization mass spectrometry profiles. These profiles make it possible to quantify implanted hydrogen as a function of depth, and have also provided information regarding the influence of UV radiation and the chemical configuration of the implanted material. A significant presence of oxide on the surface of the implanted material has also been observed through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic measurements.The removal step was mainly studied via kinetic ellipsometric in situ measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic measurements for different temperature conditions and for different chemical mixtures. The ellipsometric measurements made it possible to observe the formation of salts during etching, whereas the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis showed that the surface of the material was deoxidized by the remote plasma, while a large quantity of fluorine was measured at the same time on the material surface. The studies carried out on the implantation and removal steps made it possible to succesfully etch patterned samples under the appropriate conditions.
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Florentin Chambettaz. Caractérisation et développement d'un procédé de gravure séquentiel contrôlé à l'échelle nanométrique. Micro et nanotechnologies/Microélectronique. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018GREAT023⟩. ⟨tel-01873505⟩

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