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Dynamics and transport in the vicinity of a quantum phase transition in dimension two

Abstract : We study the relativistic O (N) model, a quantum generalization of the φ⁴ theory used in statistical physics to study some phase transitions. This model describes quantum phase transitions such as the Mott insulator-superluid transition in boson gases trapped in optical latices or the paramagnetic-antiferromagnetic transition in magnets. In two space dimensions, these systems exhibit strong correlations near the transition. We study them using the nonperturbative renormalization group, an implementation of Wilson’s renormalization group. We focus on the universal properties in the vicinity of the zero-temperature quantum phase transition. We determine the universal scaling functions which define the thermodynamics and we show that these functions are related to those describing the critical Casimir forces in a three-dimensional system. Then, we study the excitation spectrum in the zero-temperature ordered phase. For N = 2 and 3, we establish the existence of an amplitude mode, also called “Higgs mode” by analogy with the Higgs mechanism in high-energy physics. For N = 1, we show the existence of a bound state at dimensions close to three. Finally, we compute the frequency-dependent conductivity at zero temperature and confirm its universal character, in particular at the transition. We prove that one of the components of the conductivity tensor in the ordered phase is a “superuniversal” quantity depending neither on the distance to the critical point nor on N.
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Félix Rose. Dynamics and transport in the vicinity of a quantum phase transition in dimension two. Quantum Physics [quant-ph]. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2017. English. ⟨NNT : 2017PA066558⟩. ⟨tel-01872537⟩

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