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Variantes graphiques numériques dans le contexte libanais : Description sociolinguistique des pratiques et des représentations

Abstract : The digital and multimedia technologies favor, in various sociolinguistic contexts, the emergency of written communication modes presenting linguistic and graphic specificities (Crystal, 2001) that we name, in our research, digital graphic variants (VGN). The electronic written exchanges that we are studying were conducted by writers from different age groups (pre-teens, adolescents, young adults students, and adults from 28 to 63 years old). All these writers mainly use the Lebanese dialect; they transliterate it through the means of Latin graphemes and add numbers to transcribe Arabic phonemes that have no match in this writing system. They enrich their instant multilingual messages by using abbreviations, acronyms, phonetic-based rebuses and many other graphic process that mimic orals. They share the same code, that of written, but their electronic exchanges are conducted in a form that evokes the spontaneous oral, as it has already been shown by Anis (1999). They use different means to compensate the lack of multimodality, which is known to be so relevant for face-to-face interaction.Due to the trilingualism of the Lebanese context, these digital usages are also associated with multilingual practices (Lüdi and Py 2002,) or translanguaging (Garcia, 2009). We also analyze the implications and modalities of contact between Arabic, French and English.In parallel with these formal descriptions, we are provide new descriptions of wide range of contexts and modalities of the use of VGN in the north of Lebanon. This study shows the distribution of VGN and forms of contact in different types of writing such as digital and non-digital messages, private and public, synchronous and asynchronous, formal and informal on Facebook. We complete these exchange analyzes with student writings, done by 13 students attending private and public schools and universities. These last writings show the diffusion of the VGN from the electronic communication towards the paper writings for private use.Our open corpus finally includes different kinds of public writing as signs and menus of restaurants and sidewalk cafes, commercials, screen shots, Lebanese singers' song titles, Lebanese channel television programs, Lebanese textbooks, a novel, press articles and also photos taken in a public garden and in a public school. Our dissertation demonstrates that VGN have gained significant visibility in Lebanese society, becoming, as Henri Boyer (1997) writes, “a linguistic object under the scope of the media”, and that they are now widespread regardless of the media. These VGN testify a mode of vernacular writing recognized and used by the Lebanese society in contexts other than digital. Thus, our survey shows that VGN are no longer limited to adolescents and youth who initially used them, but include all age groups. They are now a means of communication sought to reach a wider audience.We also conducted a questionnaire survey of script writers who provided digital and / or non-digital messages, and teachers and professors from the public and private sectors facing VGN. These questionnaires were supplemented by interviews with 11 writers belonging to different age group. This survey allowed us to study the representations and attitudes of the writers, users or not of the digital tools, users or not VGN. This reveals the importance of the interindividual and situational variation and the ambivalent representations that the Lebanese have of these VGN.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, September 11, 2018 - 1:28:08 PM
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Bariaa Skaf. Variantes graphiques numériques dans le contexte libanais : Description sociolinguistique des pratiques et des représentations. Linguistique. Université Grenoble Alpes; Université de Balamand (Tripoli, Liban), 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018GREAL006⟩. ⟨tel-01871863⟩

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