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Understanding the impact of engineered nanoparticles Gammarus sp. as a valuable non-vertebrate model?

Abstract : The potential toxicity of nanomaterials is of high societal and scientific interest due to the promise of ground-breaking innovations for many technical applications. However, toxicity can often not be related to the actual size, mass or surface area of the single nanoparticles (NPs) or the NP agglomerates. Therefore, it can be proposed that the toxicity is greatly influenced by other inherent and non-understood properties of the particles to which ions dissolving from the particle, surface or molecules adhering to the surface interfering with the uptake of NPs into cells, may have important contributions. The PhD project “NANOGAM”, closely linked up to CORE2012 NANION project that aims to obtain knowledge to understand some of the processes and factors involved in NP uptake and toxicity as such understanding is a prerequisite for the development of nanomaterials following the safer-by-design philosophy. This PhD project aims to investigate, based on known characteristics of the key physico-chemical parameters; as size and surface functionalities, of a well-chosen list of silver and gold NPs, the uptake, and dependent biological effects of different complexity (mortality, behavioural effects, physiological effects, transcriptomic effects, etc.), on a sensitive species; Gammarus fossarum (Crustacea Amphipoda), in order to understand to which extent toxicity of nanomaterials is due to intrinsic material properties or ion leaching. Such understanding will contribute to the prediction of toxicity based on material properties rather than repetitive testing of an indefinite number of new nanomaterials. G. fossarum were exposed at low concentrations of AgNPs and AuNPs for 72h or 15 days in presence or absence of food. The obtained results showed that (i) surface coating is the main factor governing AgNPs and AuNPs uptake by G. fossarum, (ii) both released ions and NPs themselves play a role in the potency of the studied AgNPs and AuNPs and (iii) chemical composition led to different effects at the sub-individual levels (target genes expression) and different tissue distribution as AgNPs were found in G. fossarum gills while AuNPs were found in the intestinal caeca. Additionally, this work shows that Gammarus sp. are valuable models for the study of the effects of AgNPs and AuNPs
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Kahina Mehennaoui. Understanding the impact of engineered nanoparticles Gammarus sp. as a valuable non-vertebrate model?. Ecotoxicology. Université de Lorraine, 2017. English. ⟨NNT : 2017LORR0388⟩. ⟨tel-01870042⟩

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