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Méthanisation de marc de raisin. Caractérisation et optimisation du procédé et des prétraitements.

Abstract : Anaerobic digestion is considered to be a crucial part of a sustainable development strategy, contributing to the green valorization of organic waste as biogas and fertilizers. As part of this doctoral thesis, we explored the valorization of grape pomace, the major waste and main by-product of winemaking, by anaerobic digestion, to generate green energy in the form of methane. Firstly, the methane potential of grape pomace is demonstrated, validating our vegetal biomass as a potential source of energy. Detailed information on the maximum production of methane from whole pomace, pulps and seeds are obtained in batch mode at 37 °C. The technical feasibility of the process is then validated following an extrapolation to the continuous mode. Moreover, the acclimation of the continuous digester at the average temperature of the Beqaa valley (25 °C) allowed to simulate and adapt the current system to the Lebanese environment. On another note, we carried out a bio- physico-chemical characterization of different grape varieties from different wine-growing areas. The diversity of the lignocellulosic content and the methane potential of the selected substrates was highlighted. A negative correlation exists, in particular, between the methane potential and the lignin and cellulose fractions. In order to intensify methane production, we conducted an optimization of anaerobic digesters dimensioning in continuous mode by determining an optimum of operation for an applied load of 3.7 kg COD m-3 d-1 and a residence time of 20 days. Finally, we evaluated the effects of a variety of pretreatments (freezing, alkaline treatment, acid treatment, ultrasounds and pulsed electric fields) on the methane production and the biodegradability of lignocellulosic fractions. The coupling of the alkaline treatment using 10% NaOH with freezing at -20 °C seems to be the best intensification process.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, September 5, 2018 - 3:39:08 PM
Last modification on : Friday, September 25, 2020 - 3:35:57 AM
Long-term archiving on: : Thursday, December 6, 2018 - 4:39:54 PM

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Jean El Achkar. Méthanisation de marc de raisin. Caractérisation et optimisation du procédé et des prétraitements.. Génie des procédés. Université de Bretagne Sud, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LORIS459⟩. ⟨tel-01868544⟩

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