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Coordination mechanisms for smart homes electric energy management through distributed resource scheduling with demand response programs

Abstract : Grid modernization through philosophies as the Smart Grid has the potential to help meet the expected world increasing demand and integrate new distributed generation resources at the same time. Using advanced communication and computing capabilities, the Smart Grid offers a new avenue of controlling end-user assets, including small units such as home appliances. However, with such strategies, decisions taken independently can cause undesired effects such as rebound peaks, contingencies, and instabilities in the network. Therefore, the interaction between the energy management actions of multiple smart homes is a challenging issue in the Smart Grid. Under this purpose, in this work, the potential of coordination mechanisms established among residential customers at the neighborhood level is evaluated through three studies. Firstly, coordinative home energy management is presented, with the aim to increase local renewable energy usage in the neighborhood area by establishing energy trading among smart homes, which are compensated by incentives. The control algorithm is realized in both centralized and decentralized manners by deploying a multi-agent system, where neighborhood entities are modeled as agents. Simulations results show that both methods are effective on increasing local renewable energy usage and decreasing the daily electricity bills of customers. However, while the decentralized approach gives results in shorter time, the centralized approach shows a better performance regarding costs. Secondly, two decentralized energy management algorithms are proposed for day-ahead energy management in the neighborhood area. A dynamic pricing model is used, where price is associated to the aggregated consumption and grid time-of-use scheme. The objective of the study is to establish a more advanced coordination mechanism (compared to previous work) with residual renewable energy is shared among smart homes. In this study, the performance of the algorithms is investigated with daily and annual analyses, with and without considering forecasting errors. According to simulations results, both coordinative control models show better performance compared to baseline and selfish (no coordination) control cases, even when considering forecasting errors. Lastly, the impact of photovoltaic systems on a residential aggregator performance (in a centralized approach) is investigated in a neighborhood area. In the proposed model, the aggregator interacts with the spot market and the utility, and proposes a novel pricing scheme to influence customers to control their loads. Simulation results show that when the penetration level of residential photovoltaics (PV) is increased, the aggregator profit decreases due to self-consumption ability with PV in the neighborhood.
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Berk Celik. Coordination mechanisms for smart homes electric energy management through distributed resource scheduling with demand response programs. Electric power. Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 2017. English. ⟨NNT : 2017UBFCA013⟩. ⟨tel-01868463⟩

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