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Theses

Système antennaire directif et reconfigurable pour réseaux de capteurs sans fil

Abstract : Studies have shown that the communication subsystem is one of the greatest sources of energy consumption in wireless sensor networks. This subsystem is directly bounded to the type of antenna used on the radio module. Several sensor nodes are equipped with omnidirectional antennas leading to a waste of energy due to the shape of their beam. Instead of using omnidirectional antennas, directive and reconfigurable antennas system dedicated to wireless sensor networks are presented in this work so as to alleviate the waste of energy. On one hand, such dedicated antennae should be small in size and particularly designed by taking into consideration the frequency bandwidth of the node. On the other hand, their radiation pattern should also be reconfigurable by using powerless active components with a simple active control. To reach these objectives, we have in a first time proposed a directive solution inspired of a Printed-Yagi antenna in the ISM band (2.4-2.485) GHz. It provides high gain with a value of 7.3dB and a half power beam width BW−3dB of 57° in the azimuth plane. Secondly, we have proposed a multiple directional antenna in the ISM band. This antenna consists of six identical monopole antennas arranged in the same structure, having each one feeding port. Due to the selection of each feeding port, the proposed antenna covers the whole azimuthal plane with a simulated beam of 4.6 dB along with a half power beam width BW−3dB of 55°. Moreover, an electronic card equipped with an SP6T switch dedicated to that antenna has been developed to control the radiation pattern of the six identical antennas automatically. Willing to reduce the number of radiating elements while enhancing the radio performance, a third antenna has been proposed. It consists of a fed monopole and a loaded parasitic one having an inductance component of 9.6nH. The nature and the value of this inductance are obtained using the Uzkov equations that calculate the current weighting coefficients in the case of two separately fed antennas to maximize the gain and the directivity in the desired direction. Contrary to the use of electronic card in the control of radiation pattern prior to the conception of the third antenna, the reconfigurable aspect is obtained by using reflectors and director’s elements activated by PIN diodes. It offers a maximum gain of 5.2 dB in simulation at 2.4GHz along with a half power beam width BW−3dB of 52°, in both the 270° and +90° azimuthal directions depending on the selection of the set of PIN diodes. Finally, a straight application of this structure has been proposed in order to cover more than two directions in the azimuth plane. It is an array of four monopole antennas in which two of them are fed and the two others are loaded. Such antenna is capable to steer its radiation pattern in the azimuth plane covering 360° directions (0°, 90°, 180° and 270°). The achieved simulated realized total gain is 4 dB for each radiation pattern in the azimuth plane along with a half power beam width of about 60°. Measurement campaign test has been carried out for each proposed antenna in this work. During these measurements, the received signal strength indicator (RSSI) has been the paramount value to estimate the antenna performance in connection with the sensor node. Following this measurement campaign, we have been able to notice that the use of only directive antennas is not sufficient in a random deployment of sensor nodes. Hence, the reconfigurable aspect of the beam pattern by use of powerless active components should be taken into consideration. Such kind of antennas provide an improvement of the RSSI, which is a key factor in the reduction of collisions drastically on one hand, and on the other hand related to a reduction of power consumption
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01868317
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Submitted on : Wednesday, September 5, 2018 - 12:48:05 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, October 14, 2020 - 4:22:35 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01868317, version 1

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Akimu Ayan Niyi Dihissou. Système antennaire directif et reconfigurable pour réseaux de capteurs sans fil. Electronique. Université Côte d'Azur, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018AZUR4013⟩. ⟨tel-01868317⟩

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