« Gallos » et « Bretons » : représentations de l'Autre et mobilisation de la frontière linguistique dans les processus de construction identitaire : une approche anthropologique de la limite entre Haute et Basse-Bretagne

Anne Diaz 1
1 CRBC Rennes - Centre de recherche bretonne et celtique
UR2 - Université de Rennes 2 : EA 4451, CRBC - Centre de recherche bretonne et celtique
Abstract : Brittany is divided by a language boundary that has historically separated Lower Brittany, where the Celtic language of Breton is spoken, from Upper Brittany, where people speak the Romance language of Gallo. In the border zone, this linguistic difference is used in support of stereotypical representations of the Other and his/her language. Although the boundary has long been instable, although exchanges have always taken place, and although family histories frequently mix people originating on either side, discourses have long invoked two groups constituted as hermetic: “Bretons” and “Gallos.” By creating a readily visible axis of alterity, the linguistic boundary permits people on either side to differentiate themselves from their neighbors and, simultaneously, to identify with their own group. Analyses of these representations reveal a marked asymmetry, clearly in favor of Lower Bretons and the Breton language, while Upper Bretons and Gallo are often ignored, or even made objects of open disdain. This asymmetry corresponds to an overvaluation of Lower Brittany in discourses about Breton identity, which frequently leaves Upper Brittany elided. At present, these longstanding representations continue to influence practices, Gallo being the object of less social mobilization and its speakers receiving less assistance in reversing language shift. The border is the source of tensions at the heart of Brittany’s language revitalization movement, whether one considers it to be obsolete or uses it to gain respect for a territory or to claim language rights
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Anne Diaz. « Gallos » et « Bretons » : représentations de l'Autre et mobilisation de la frontière linguistique dans les processus de construction identitaire : une approche anthropologique de la limite entre Haute et Basse-Bretagne. Linguistique. Université Rennes 2, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018REN20029⟩. ⟨tel-01868251⟩

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